CHAP.I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Natural hazards like Floods and Landslides can lead to major disasters which hamper the development of the nations and affect many areas in the World. Most of countries around the world, especially Asian and African countries, do not have adequate methodology of estimation of losses due to the occurrence of natural disasters. The information about loss estimation caused by floods of different magnitudes and the loss return period are crucial to develop policies for rational flood and landslide alleviation, based on cost effective measures (www.ifrc.org).
Rwanda is currently vulnerable to climate change as it is strongly reliant on rain-fed agriculture both for rural and cities livelihoods where we experience emergency situation from flooding and landslides disasters. Rwanda is located in equatorial Africa, with shortage of data to produce robust climate projections. Although temperature rise is uncertain while future rainfall patterns are even more uncertain, making it difficult to plan for the future. This is particularly important for agriculture, where crop yields are affected by temperature and rainfall, and planning for future water demands to support the economy. Climate data from Rwanda should improve confidence in global climate models and enable better regional modeling, contributing not only to Rwanda’s adaptation planning, but planning in the region.
With recent years, floods and landslides have caused a number of effects on affected population.
This study comes to illustrate the induced effects on socio-economic development.