MIXED MIGRATION FLOWS TO EUROPE
In Quarter 2 (Q2) of 2022, a total of 38,008 migrants and refugees were registered arriving through the three Mediterranean routes and the Western African Atlantic route to Europe, which is 8 per cent higher than the 37,306 arrivals registered in the same period in 2021, and almost 4 times the 10,334 registered in Q2 of 2020.
Arrivals in Q2 of 2022 are 48 per cent higher compared to the previous reporting period (25,675 in Q1 2022).
About 55 per cent of all registered individuals in Q2 2022 arrived in Europe via the Central Mediterranean route to Italy and Malta (20,835). Around 14 per cent of arrivals were registered in Spain, through the Western Mediterranean and Western African Atlantic routes (5,364 ). The remaining 31 per cent travelled through the Eastern Mediterranean route to Greece, Cyprus and Bulgaria (11,809).
Compared to Q2 of last year, arrivals have increased by 57 per cent along the Central Mediterranean route (CMR, compared to 13,299 in Q2 2021) and increased by 89 per cent along the Eastern Mediterranean route (EMR), while they have decreased by 66 per cent along the Western Mediterranean (WMR) and Western African Atlantic routes (WAAR) combined.
According to available data from national authorities so far in 2022, Afghanistan, Morocco, Bangladesh, Egypt and Syrian Arab Republic are the most frequently reported countries of origin among all registered arrivals to Europe, followed by many other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and Asia.
Arrivals registered on the CMR in the second quarter of 2022 by sea were 20,835 which is 3 times the 6,832 arrivals of the previous quarter (Q1 2022). Main nationalities at arrival through CMR in Q2 2022 were Bangladesh, Egypt, Tunisia, and Afghanistan. Additionally, during the second quarter of 2022, 6,440 migrants were returned to Libya,1 which is 88 per cent more than the 3,423 returned in Q1 of 2022, but 32 per cent less the interceptions registered in Q2 2021 (9,430). Additionally, at least 432 migrants perished while crossing the CMR in the second quarter of 2022, which is 31 per cent more than the 331 in the first quarter of 2022.
Arrivals to Spain were 5,364 in Q2 2022, which is one third of the arrivals registered in Q2 of 2021 (15,948). Arrivals in the second quarter of 2022 are 38 per cent less than those in Q1 of 2022 (8,676). More than a half (54%) of the arrivals in Spain in this quarter was registered via sea through the WAAR to the Canary Islands. 37 per cent of arrivals were registered through the WMR to mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands, and 9 per cent by land to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. Main nationalities reported at arrival in Spain are Morocco, Algeria, Guinea, Senegal, and Sudan. In the second quarter of 2022, at east 193 persons perished or disappeared at sea while on their way to Spain. Of these, 136 died in the Atlantic Ocean while trying to reach the Canary Islands.
The EMR route represented the second largest number of arrivals in the second quarter of 2022, with 11,809 migrants and refugees registered at arrival in Greece, Cyprus and Bulgaria. This is 89 per cent more arrivals registered on this route in the same period of 2021 (6,240), and 17 per cent more than the arrivals in Q1 of 2022 (10,1360). Afghanistan, Syrian Arab Republic, Morocco and Iraq are the top nationalities reported at arrivals in Greece and Bulgaria in the second quarter of 2022.
On the same route, the Turkish Coast Guard (TCG) reported to have apprehended 12,580 persons in the second quarter of the year, while trying to cross the sea between Türkiye and Greece. Interceptions by the TCG were 72 per cent higher than those in Q1 2022 (7,335) and almost three times higher than interceptions in the same period in 2021 (4,617).
Registrations of migrants apprehended by national authorities in the Western Balkans – in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia, Romania and Kosovo* – were 46,609 in Q2 of 2022. The number more than doubled compared to the previous quarter (20,638 in Q1 of 2022) and increased by 47 per cent compared to Q2 of 2021 (31,690). Pakistan, Afghanistan, Syrian Arab Republic, and Bangladesh were the most frequently reported countries of origin of migrants travelling through the Western Balkans in the second quarter of 2022.