Since the 1970s, recurrent extreme weather and climate events have been affecting the Lake Chad Basin (LCB), which includes Adamawa, Borno, Diffa (Niger), Far North (Cameroon), Lac (Chad), and Yobe (Nigeria). These events have been affecting people’s livelihoods by limiting the availability of natural resources, such as water, and land. A strong population growth, going hand in hand with greater pressure on resources, has intensified the competition for access to these, causing intercommunal conflicts between people pursuing different livelihoods (Adelphi 15/05/2019; WB 06/2021).
Intercommunal conflicts over access to land and natural resources have caused the displacement of thousands of people. These displaced people add to those displaced by the activity of non-state armed groups and military operations. Those who lived mainly from agriculture, pastoralism,1 and fishing heavily depend on humanitarian aid (Le Monde 24/05/2022; UNHCR 21/01/2022 and 18/05/2022).
The activity of non-state armed groups and military operations in the region limit the ability of communities —who traditionally move to other areas when climatic conditions change— from moving and finding other economic opportunities. People living in affected areas often use negative coping strategies to access scarce resources (Adelphi 15/05/2019; IOM 25/08/2021). Rising food prices and low agricultural production – often linked to rainy seasons that start too late and do not last long enough or the destruction of crops by seasonal floods – contribute to the deterioration of food security. This situation is expected to worsen as climate predictions indicate a rise in temperature and an increased frequency of extreme weather events in the region in the coming years (EC 09/02/2022).