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2021 Joint Multi Clusters Needs Assessment (JMCNA) Methodology Overview: Somaliland

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1. Specific objectives and research questions

The 2021 Somaliland Joint Multi-Cluster Needs Assessment (JMCNA) was conducted to support evidence-based decision-making for the 2022 humanitarian planning cycle process and to enable planning among key humanitarian actors through the provision of updated information on multi-sectoral needs and priorities for crisis-affected populations in Somaliland. To approach this objective, the JMCNA sought to answer the following research questions:

  1. What are the main household humanitarian needs and priorities across Somaliland?

  2. To what extent does the severity of humanitarian needs differ by assessed districts and displaced and non-displaced population groups?

  3. What is the level of household access to basic services such as education, health, shelter, and water?

  4. To what extent are certain population groups vulnerable, and what factors exacerbate or mitigate the needs of these vulnerable population groups?

  5. To what extent does access to basic services differ among different groups or are certain groups excluded from access to specific services?

  6. What knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding COVID-19 are currently held by population groups in Somaliland?

  7. How do the answers to the aforementioned questions vary according to district and region, urban or rural areas, and displaced and non-displaced population groups?

2. Scope

During joint planning sessions with Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and humanitarian sectors, it was decided that a full complement of sectors would be covered in the JMCNA. While, during these sessions, actors recognised the need for further reflection on the distinction between internally displaced person (IDP) and non-IDP population groups in light of the protracted crisis context in Somaliland, 2021 JMCNA focus remained households living in IDP settlements and households living in non-IDP settlements, in both rural and urban areas, in line with previous years’ assessment cycles. No data was available to elaborate the sampling frame for more specific categories such as host community, out-of-camp displaced persons or recently displaced persons.

The population of interest assessed during data collection was limited to the subset of households possessing a mobile phone, residing in areas with cellular network coverage and whose contact numbers were included on the available phone lists. However, considering Somaliland provides one of the cheapest telecommunications services across Africa, and previous studies highlighting that the majority of the population owns a mobile phone, it was assumed that this sample should include households from a diversity of locations and backgrounds. Given that the JMCNA’s objective is to inform strategic planning and subsequent humanitarian response the household was selected as the unit of analysis, to better capture the severity of needs and vulnerabilities of the Somaliland population. District-level results were subsequently aggregated at the state and national levels in order to explore broader trends and dynamics.