This report is commissioned by the Ministry of Social Affairs (MoSA) Republic of Indonesia to further the understanding of the various contexts faced by Disaster Resilient Villages (Kampung Siaga Bencana/KSB) across Indonesia. While challenges are explored, best practices are also identified with the intention to replicate these and further scale-up in other areas. The findings of this study should be used to strengthen KSB capacities and ensure further sustainability.
This report finds that ingredients such as permanence, effectiveness, ownership, adaptiveness, inclusion, supportive policy environment, capacity, culture, funding and accountability (key areas proposed by the Global Network of Civil Society Organisations for Disaster Reduction) are applicable to KSBs.
The report discusses these areas and identifies best practices, challenges and lessons learnt related to the KSBs. Key findings are elaborated as follows:
Legal status and support of the local government play important roles in ensuring that KSBs remain in the community. The study finds that KSBs that are legally recognised (normally through an issuance of a decree/Surat Keputusan) have a more sustainable presence and a funding base. Many KSBs see the government’s long-term role in guiding and supporting them as an equally important factor contributing to sustainability. KSBs expressed their hope that government support will not decrease once the KSB is established. While the definition of ‘support’ may differ from one KSB to another, a majority of the KSBs refer to ‘support’ as ways to appreciate and acknowledge the works of KSBs
The importance of appropriate village selection in establishing KSBs and the ability to establish a strong network of disaster management stakeholders will boost the effectiveness of KSBs. Characteristics of successful villages selected are as follows:
Strong motivation, previous experiences in managing similar organisation and strong village leadership. KSBs with one/all of these characteristics are usually able to continue their activities and overcome any challenges. Moreover, the ability of KSBs to foster beneficial networks with people and organisations working with disaster management will further advance KSB activities.
Ownership reflected by the communities’ buy-in is important in ensuring sustainability.
Ownership is often reflected in strong leadership, selection of appropriate members for KSB management and use of local resources. Strong leadership can assist in resolving conflicts within KSBs and provide moral support, as well as to provide legality for KSBs to conduct its activities. When establishing the KSB, selecting core members to drive the process is critical. Utilising communities’ own resources for disaster management activities is also considered integral.
In the absence of disaster response, KSB should focus on activities geared to disaster preparedness. Another aspect to ensuring KSB adaptiveness is to promote innovations in KSB activities. These innovations are usually unique to their natural context that will ease implementation of the KSBs. These innovations have proven not only to maintain KSBs but strengthen KSB’s community identity. In some areas KSBs are not only seen as disaster responders and disaster management experts but are also considered as a resource for other community issues. Through innovations, KSBs may create potential economic activities that are not only benefitting the community but also benefitting its members.