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Research Terms of Reference: Baseline, Midline, and endline assessments for the Kenya Cash Consortium response to the unregistered refugees in Dadaab refugee camps, KEN2203 (May 2022, V1)

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2. Rationale

2.1. Background

There are 234,007 refugees and asylum seekers residing in Dadaab camps (Dagahaley, Hagadera and Ifo) as of 31 March 2022. Findings from the MSNA 2021 conducted by REACH Initiative in Dadaab show that 60 percent of HHs are reportedly female-headed and half of respondents had lived in Dadaab camp for over 15 years. The majority of respondents (90%) reported that their heads of household’s country of origin was Somalia, with the remaining being Ethiopia. Thirty percent (30%) of HHs in Dagahaley (one of the three camps in Dadaab) reported that none of their household members were registered as refugees or asylum seekers at the time of data collection. Reasons for this non-registration were reported unavailability of registration in camps and some had just arrived from other countries. Respondents from most of the HHs with unregistered HH members (97%), reported that these members had been in the country for less than two years.

Unregistered HHs experience challenges unique to their status, including increased risk of arrest by security personnel, reduced access to services by humanitarian actors, lack of shelter and lack of access to food. On the other hand, over half of the HHs surveyed in the MSNA did not have access to enough food the in 30 days prior to data collection, and 98 percent of HHs reported food to be among their priority needs.

In Dadaab refugee camps, protection remains a critical issue especially for the unregistered persons. In January 2022, of the 106 protection-related cases attended to by UNHCR in Dadaab5, 54 cases were undocumented new arrivals assessed on their vulnerability to accessing humanitarian assistance such as food and other basic services.

The livelihood coping strategies, and food consumption score indicators showed that HHs with unregistered HH members were experiencing food insecurity. Of the HHs that reportedly had no member registered, a higher proportion in Hagadera (88%) than in Ifo (85%) and Dagahaley (34%) were found to use emergency, crisis or stress levels. In addition, a higher proportion of the HHs with no member registered in Hagadera (88%) than in Ifo (85%) and Dagahaley (18%) were found to have poor or borderline food consumption scores. However, all households experience some degree of negative coping strategies. The baseline assessment will seek to understand the food security status and expenditure patterns of the beneficiary households and the midline and endline will seek to understand how beneficiary household food security and expenditure patterns change after receiving MPCTs.

2.2. Intended Impact

Based on the rationale summarized above, the Kenya Cash Consortium, led by ACTED and the Arid and Semi-arid lands (ASAL) Humanitarian Network (AHN) RRDO, will provide MPCTs to unregistered HHs in Dadaab refugee camps, Garissa county. IMPACT initiatives will provide monitoring of project by conducting baseline, midline and endline assessments.

The intervention will provide some relief and support beneficiary HHs to address their basic needs and potentially start income generating activities that may get them on their feet. Refugee HHs that suffer from exclusion and a lack of access to resources to sustain themselves, within the context of a drought in the region will receive MPCTs to meet basic needs. 1,055 households, including 6,330 individuals, will receive six cash transfers, of KES 6,821 each between May and September 2022. The intervention is an extension of the ongoing drought response by KCC partners in the ASALs. As such, the proposed action will capitalize on economies of scale from an ongoing broader cash response, whilst extending support to the most extremely vulnerable unregistered HHs in Dadaab camps.

In order to monitor the ongoing impact of the MPCTs at the HH level, IMPACT Initiatives will conduct a baseline, a midline and an endline assessment. First, an initial baseline survey will be conducted for the new beneficiaries HHs before they receive any MPCT. Two weeks after the second round of disbursements of the MPCTs to HHs, IMPACT Initiatives will conduct a midline survey with samples drawn from beneficiary HHs. After the last disbursement of MPCTs to HHs, IMPACT Initiatives will conduct an endline survey. The baseline, midline and endline surveys will be conducted remotely through phone interviews. The overall aim of this research is to understand the impact of MPCTs to unregistered HHs in Dadaab and inform similar interventions in the future by Kenya Cash Consortium.