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A way forward to monitor disaster-related losses of ecosystems and ecosystem services in the Sendai Framework Monitor

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Climate-related disasters have accounted for 91 per cent of the recorded disaster events over the past 20 years (UNDRR, 2018). Thereof, droughts, floods and storms alone have affected 3.8 billion people, or 94 per cent of all people affected by disasters (UNODA, 2020). According to the latest Global Assessment Report (UNDRR, 2019), climate change is considered to be a major driver of disaster-related losses as it amplifies disaster risk and hampers development.

Disasters affect all three dimensions of sustainable development, namely society, the economy and the environment. Since the recording of disaster-related losses, impacts of disasters on society and the economy have been captured and monitored by leading global disaster loss databases, such as DesInventar Sendai (UNDRR, n.d.) and the international disaster database EM-DAT (CRED, 2009), and reinsurance databases, such as Sigma Explorer (Swiss Re, n.d.) and NatCatService (Munich RE, n.d.). With regard to the environmental dimension, only the loss of provisioning ecosystem services, such as loss of crops or livestock, has been reported on despite the fact that ecosystems have been well recognized by researchers and policymakers globally for their contribution to development, disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) (Campbell and others, 2009; Estrella and Saalismaa, 2013;
Renaud and others, 2016).

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) was adopted in 2015 by 187 countries with the aim to foster DRR efforts globally by substantially reducing disasterrelated losses (UNISDR, 2015). The implementation of the targets of the SFDRR is facilitated through a web-based monitoring framework of 38 indicators, the Sendai Framework Monitor (SFM) (UNISDR, 2017).