Forced population displacement, food insecurity and malnutrition, health emergencies and the effects of climate change continue to mark the humanitarian situation in the Lac, in a context of insecurity preventing humanitarian access to certain areas and an increase in protection incidents. As of September 2021, there were 406,573 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the Lac province as a result of armed conflict. This represents almost 62% of the province's population (657,000 people), as well as an increase in IDPs of 95% compared to the situation in January 2020, which was 208,300 IDPs. The protection situation of civilians remains a concern in the province. Between January 2021 and January 2022, over 1,600 protection incidents were reported compared to 1,058 in 2020, showing an increase of 59%. Comparing recent data, 138 incidents were reported in January 2022 compared to 98 cases in December, an increase of 29%.
The most recurrent incidents are physical assaults, kidnappings, homicides, murders, extortion of property, etc., committed mainly by Non-State Armed Groups (NSAG). As for gender-based violence, 1,892 incidents were recorded between January 2021 and January 2022, 59 of which were rapes, including 6 cases in January 2022. The areas most affected by incidents remain the island areas between Ngouboua, Kangalam and Kaiga-Kindjiria. This situation is of concern for the population of the province, which is calling for the reinforcement of security measures and the protection of civilians in the sites where displaced persons are received and in the grazing areas. On the health front, the Lac is concerned about the cholera epidemic in Nigeria, Niger and Cameroon in neighbouring districts and a contingency plan has been drawn up to prevent the epidemic from spreading to Chad. As for the COVID-19 situation, five cases have been reported so far, including five in Baga Sola and one in Bol.
The Lac Province is facing incidents related to climate change, including bush fires that destroy crops and homes and increase the vulnerability of the population. Between January and February 2022, 15 cases of fire were reported in the sub-prefectures of Baga Sola, Ngouboua, Bol and Liwa affecting 107 households. Priority needs are shelter, essential household items and food. Some multi-sectoral interventions have been provided to the victims but remain insufficient to meet the needs expressed.