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Inclusive Approaches to Disaster Risk Management — A Qualitative Review

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This report presents a qualitative review of inclusive approaches to disaster risk management (DRM)—a part of the first stocktaking exercise that the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) conducts to assess lessons learned and generate knowledge to help mainstream inclusive approaches and strategies across GFDRR activities. The findings are based on a literature review, analysis of portfolio data, and internal consultations with World Bank task team leaders of GFDRR-funded activities. The reviewed literature includes GFDRR project documentation and knowledge products, World Bank operational documents and research findings, and relevant publications from other scholars and organizations. The stocktaking exercise emphasizes gender, disability-inclusive DRM, citizen engagement, and community participation. It will help create a framework for GFDRR engagement on inclusive DRM and inform development of an inclusive DRM workplan for implementation beginning in fiscal year 2022. As such, GFDRR’s work in these areas reflects its commitment to the World Bank Group’s Gender Strategy 2016–2023 (World Bank Group 2015), the Disability Inclusion and Accountability Framework (World Bank 2018), and the Strategic Framework for Mainstreaming Citizen Engagement in World Bank Group Operations (World Bank 2014).

Ultimately, social inclusion in DRM is about promoting opportunities for, abilities of, and dignity of marginalized groups in all aspects and stages of the DRM continuum. Although not unique to the disaster context, mechanisms of exclusion tend to exacerbate existing inequalities during disasters. Therefore, inclusive DRM is a critical component of the broader social inclusion agenda. Moreover, DRM actions will not effectively reduce disaster risks for everyone if the needs of vulnerable or marginalized population groups are not considered. Although the underlying patterns driving disaster vulnerability are sometimes difficult to assess and quantify, failure to address them is likely to result in enormous social and economic costs. Yet, inclusive DRM approaches are not just about supporting disadvantaged groups that suffer disproportionately from the effects of disasters—it is about empowering marginalized people to help increase the resilience of their communities. Figure 1 presents a summary of the main elements of inclusive DRM.