A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
Context (Lombok operation)
Since the first 6.4 magnitude earthquake hit Lombok, province of West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, on 29 July 2018, four further earthquakes and multiple aftershocks impacted the districts of North Lombok, East Lombok, West Lombok, Central Lombok, Mataram, and Sumbawa Island, in addition to Bali Island. The Indonesian National Board for Disaster Management (Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana or BNPB) reported more than 564 fatalities and almost 150,000 houses damaged due to the earthquakes.
Another magnitude 5.8 earthquake shook the Island of Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara on 17 March 2019, with depth of 19 km and followed within minutes by another earthquake of 5.2 magnitude with depth of 10 km and epicentre located in East Lombok. The earthquake was felt strongly in West Lombok, North Lombok, East Lombok, and mildly in Central Lombok and Mataram. No tsunami alert was issued by the authorities; however, people in Lombok panicked and evacuated to the nearest higher ground.
On 18 March 2019, PMI/ IFRC joint teams visited North Lombok and East Lombok districts for further assessment of damage and needs. An information bulletin was published on 22 March. The findings of the assessment did not reflect major needs. PMI, supported by IFRC, provided assistance to affected families without the need to revise the emergency plan of action.
Context (Central Sulawesi operation)
On 28 September 2018, a series of strong earthquakes struck Central Sulawesi Province. The strongest of which measured at 7.4 magnitude and 10km deep with the epicentre in Donggala Regency, close to the provincial capital Palu.
The earthquake triggered a tsunami which reached up to three meters in some areas, striking Talise beach in Palu and Donggala. The earthquakes, tsunami and resulting liquefaction and landslides caused significant damage and loss of life in affected areas.
The government reported that 4,140 people died in the disaster, of which 1,016 were not identified; and a further 705 people remain missing. More than 4,400 were seriously injured and more than 110,000 houses destroyed, damaged or lost due to the earthquake, tsunami or liquefaction. Of these, 27,662 houses were severely damaged while more than 6,500 were lost (mainly due to liquefaction). In its wake, almost 173,000 people were displaced. Currently, some people are living in government-constructed barracks (huntaras), while others take shelter in their damaged homes or with relatives in other communities or within theirs.
More than 320 district and community-based health facilities plus 1,300 schools were also damaged.
The status of government response is on the recovery phase.
Context (Sunda operation)
On 22 December 2018, another tsunami hit Carita Beach in Banten Province and the coast around the Sunda Strait, specifically in Pandenglang, South Lampung and Serang districts. The tsunami was generated when a part of the Krakatau volcano collapsed into the sea and displacing large quantities of water.
Based on government reports, more than 1,600 houses were severely damaged or destroyed and more than 600 were medium- or lightly damaged, displacing more than 16,000 people. The disaster also killed more than 400 people and injured more than 14,000. More than half of the casualties was recorded in Pandegnlang district.
The tsunami was recorded four times in four different locations with waves reaching a height of 0.3 to 0.9 metres. The highest wave hit Serang sub-district with a height of 0.9 m. The National Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysical Agency – Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) issued high-tide warning before the tsunami struck for the mentioned area. A tsunami early warning was not issued as the cause of the tsunami was not an earthquake, which the current system monitors and responds to.
BPBD, together with the military, police, BASARNAS, local government office, Ministry of Social Welfare Volunteers (TAGANA), PMI, volunteers and the community provided emergency response support to the affected people. The response was locally coordinated in a command post, along with the establishment field kitchens and displacement sites. Heavy equipment was dispatched to clear debris to ease evacuation and response efforts.
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