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Livelihoods Capacity and Needs Assessment of Vulnerable Households in the Gaza Strip (November - 2021)

territorio Palestino ocupado
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Executive Summary

Throughout 2019 to 2021, Diakonie Katastrophenhilfe (DKH) in Gaza has collaborated with the Palestine Association for Education and Environmental Protection (PAEEP), a registered local non-profit organization. Through the implementation of previous projects, DKH and PAEEP have undertaken extensive monitoring and evaluation activities to improve understanding of the household economy of beneficiaries, as well as some of the root causes of household vulnerability. To further expand the evidence base for the design of future projects, DKH Gaza and PAEEP designed and implemented a comprehensive, mixed-methods assessment of vulnerability, household economy, and livelihoods in the Gaza Strip between April and May 2021.

The assessment focused on identifying both the root causes of vulnerability, as well as the means and mechanisms by which vulnerable households can sustainably meet their basic needs through enhanced livelihoods. The assessment therefore served to tie core vulnerability to findings on livelihoods capacities, adding more context to existing evidence on vulnerability. PAEEP served as the data collection partner for this assessment, with PAEEP staff also closely involved in the design and analysis stages.

The assessment utilized a mixed-methodology approach, collecting both qualitative and quantitative data. Survey tools included Key Informant (KI) questionnaires, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) tools, and household (HH) level questionnaires. The assessed groups included randomly selected households from the Ministry of Social Development (MOSD) Palestine National Cash Transfer Program (PNCTP) list for the HH questionnaire and FGDs, and governmental actors, UN actors, and NGO actors for the KIIs. The HH-level questionnaire collected findings representative findings with a 95% level of confidence and a 7% margin of error.

Overall, the average monthly reported income for the assessed households was 690.8 NIS (212.3 USD), with a range from 270 to 3,300 NIS (83.1-1,015.38 USD). Of the assessed HHs, 83.5% reported relying almost entirely on their PNCTP payments as their source of income. The average reported monthly expenditure for the assessed households was 1,477 NIS (456 USD), with median expenditure of 1,330 NIS (416 USD). The household expenditure categories most reported were food (100%), hygiene items (99%), cooking fuel (95%), transportation (87%), drinking water (83%), and medical care (75%).

Almost all HHs reported having employable members, with only one HH reporting no employable members. Overall, the assessed households reported 999 employable members, meaning those of working age without physical or mental disabilities that prevented them from holding employment.

The employed individuals were overwhelmingly male (91%), and 78% were reported to be between the ages of 17 and 35. The most common employment category was self-employment (including small business owners, taxi owners, land-owning farmers, etc.), with 31% of employed individuals. Only 13% of employed individuals were said to have degrees (diplomas, bachelors, or masters), and 6% were said to have any form of training or certification. A larger percentage (28%) were said to have previous experience prior to their current employment, spread across a variety of sectors.

Additionally, 72% of employable individuals were said to be actively seeking employment, with these individuals being members of 95% of households. Of these, 71% were said to be between 17-35 years old, with 63% male and 37% female. Overall, only 12% of these individuals were said to have degrees, with 37.5% having achieved a diploma, 59.8% a bachelors, and 2.7% a masters. The most received degree was in business and finance (27%), followed by humanities (23%), education (16%), and medicine/medical services (12%). The most sought employment was reported to be in private sector construction (27%), followed by self-employment (20%), private sector trade and maintenance (12%), private sector agriculture (8%), and governmental public services (8%).

Overall, 97% of those seeking employment were reported to be facing barriers to accessing it. The most reported barrier was the lack availability of relevant jobs (66%), followed by the lack of sufficient professional training (33%), the lack of sufficient years of experience (21%), and the lack of certification for the desired job (15%). Additionally, 99% of those seeking employment reported the need for support to find employment. The most reported need was for small business loans (55%), followed by vocational training (41%), and certificate training (24%).