The food security and drought crisis in the Grand Sud region of Madagascar is leading to the use of coping mechanisms with particular harmful effects on women and children. There are reports of women resorting to transactional sex to provide food, despite the risk of unintended pregnancies. Meanwhile access to sexual and reproductive healthcare can be challenging, largely because they cannot afford the costs of transportation to adequate services. Child marriage also takes place to compensate for the lack of household income. Higher rates of women aged 20-49 get married before age 18 in Anosy (45%), Androy (55%), and Atsimo Andrefana (58%) regions of the Grand Sud, compared to the national rate of 37%. Child labour has been increasing because of consecutive droughts; children are considered adults and expected to participate in informal income-generating activities including begging. Between 49-62% of children have been involved in child labour in 2021.
At least 11,500 people, mostly women and children, fled villages in Sabon Birni LGA (Sokoto State, Nigeria) to Tahoua region (Niger) following three days of attacks in mid-November that including killing, looting, and destruction of crops. The refugees are hosted in 26 villages in the rural commune of Bangui, which has been hosting 3,500 Nigerian refugees since September. The newly displaced need food assistance, WASH, shelter, and medical care. Violence causing displacement and insecurity in Sokoto state has been rising in 2021. Between September and November there were 35 incidents of violence involving attacks by armed gunmen and abductions and 229 fatalities, compared with 5 incidents and fatalities in the comparable period of 2020.
Shifting frontlines in Al Hodeidah and Ta’iz governorates resulted in over 25,000 people displaced in total, both northward to DFA controlled areas, and southward to IRG areas since mid-November. Shortages of fuel and other commercial supplies are recorded in Al Hodeidah city due to disruptions on the main commercial road running from Aden through the districts affected by the recent clashes. Humanitarians report an urgent need for latrines and WASH services, as well as gaps in shelter, NFIs and cash support for IDPs in IRG areas. IDPs in areas that came under DFA control are in need of healthcare, including medicines and medical supplies, and regular supply of safe water. Since September, renewed hostilities in Marib governorate have displaced 45,500 people, many for the second or third time. Renewed displacement is increasing the severity of their needs, including for food, water, shelter, NFIs, and medical care. The colder winter months only increases the needs of IDPs around Marib, as many are currently living in makeshift shelters in the open, lacking basic items such as warm clothing and blankets.