The Syria refugee crisis remains the largest humanitarian and development crises in the world. Across the five main Syrian-refugee hosting countries included under the 3RP – Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt – over 20 million people need some form of humanitarian and resilience support going into 2022. This includes some 7.1 million Syrian refugees and asylum seekers of other nationalities and stateless persons, and 12.9 million impacted host community members, which is the highest number of people in need of some form of assistance in this crisis, in nearly a decade.
Alongside the record numbers of people in need, the level of vulnerability among refugees and impacted host community members is growing. The 3RP countries continue to be significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and its multiple waves, as well as associated socio-economic challenges, some of which pre-date the pandemic. At the macro level, economic forecasts for 3RP countries in 2021 and beyond have been shifted to slow growth compared to those in 2020. However, especially in Lebanon, where compounding crises have had devastating effects, GDP has diminished in 2021. Rises in levels of unemployment, multidimensional poverty, and food insecurity are among the greatest factors driving individual need in the short-term. The high youth population across the region places pressures on the limited capacities in the education and livelihoods sectors. Additional demographic pressures are a result of worsening social cohesion due to competition over limited resources, services, and opportunities. At a time where the social fabric is under pressure, violence against women and risks of Gender-Based Violence (GBV) continue to be reported across the region. Moreover, the broader health impacts driven by COVID-19 will also entail long term consequences for the most vulnerable people.
Three key underlying trends continue to drive the needs of refugees, and host countries and communities: the effects of large-scale protracted displacement, socio-economic conditions, and demographic pressures. These interlinked trends continue to impact existing structural and individual vulnerabilities and, in some cases, create new vulnerabilities. The trends have also deepened pre-existing inequalities, such as gender inequality.
This 3RP Regional Needs Overview (RNO) provides a consolidated overview of the needs and vulnerabilities of refugees and impacted host community members at both the regional- and country-level. It is based on data and information gathered through assessments and studies conducted throughout 2021 and intended to inform 3RP regional- and country-level planning for 2022, as well as further research and policy efforts. It begins with an analysis of the key overarching trends affecting refugees and host communities in 3RP countries. It then follows with an assessment of the needs and vulnerabilities, in terms of what support is needed and to whom to address the challenges faced, and then goes more in depth on country analyses which examines specific country data at a closer level.