A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
Indonesia was hit with several major earthquakes and tsunamis in 2018 with the first major ones striking off Lombok on 29 July 2018 with the magnitude of 6.4 and followed by a 7.4 magnitude earthquakes, tsunami and liquefaction in Central Sulawesi on 28 September 2018, damaging hundreds of thousands of houses in both areas and displacing hundreds of thousands of people.
On 22 December 2018, another tsunami hit Carita Beach in Banten Province and the coast around the Sunda Strait, specifically in Pandenglang, South Lampung and Serang districts. The tsunami was generated when part of the Krakatau volcano collapsed into the sea and displacing large quantities of water.
Based on government reports, more than 1,600 houses were severely damaged or destroyed and more than 600 were medium- or lightly damaged, displacing more than 16,000 people. The disaster also killed more than 400 people and injured more than 14,000. More than half of the casualties was recorded in Pandegnlang district.
According to Government reports, the event was recorded four times in four different locations with tidal waves reaching a height of 0.3 to 0.9 metres. The highest wave hit Serang sub-district with a height of 0.9 m. BMKG issued high-tide warning before the tsunami struck for the mentioned area. A tsunami early warning was not issued as the cause of the tsunami was not an earthquake, to which the current system monitors and responds.
BPBD, together with the military, police, the national search and rescue agency (Basarnas), local government offices, Ministry of Social Welfare Volunteers (Tagana), Indonesian Red Cross (PMI) volunteers and the community provided emergency response support to the affected people. The response was locally coordinated in a command post, along with the establishment of field kitchens and displacement sites. Heavy equipment was dispatched to clear debris to ease evacuation and response efforts.
The Indonesian Ministry of Health since 10 March 2020 activated 132 referral hospitals in 33 provinces for COVID-19 case management. The government also established an emergency hospital for COVID-19 quarantine and treatment in Galang Island of Riau Islands Province as part of the initial response.
On 13 April 2020, the Government declared a state of emergency for COVID-19 as a non-natural disaster in Indonesia. The number of confirmed cases has continued to increase significantly since the announcement of the first two cases in March 2020. Based on Indonesia Ministry of Health data as of 31 December 2020, more than 765,000 have tested positive, of which more than 22,000 cases have been fatal.
The declaration allowed the government to invoke powers to ease entry of international aid, as well as to generate or allocate funds to respond to the pandemic. A COVID-19 acceleration Task Force was also formed, with the Head of BNPB (National Agency of Disaster Management) leading the task force. Task forces have also been established for 25 provinces, of which 11 provinces have declared an emergency status. The task force is assigned to lead the prevention, response and recovery activities, as well as to employ experts to support the responses. The task force is also required to consult the policy plan with the head of the national task force.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs also issued a temporary restriction to export antiseptics, materials for masks manufacturing and personal protective equipment (PPE). Meanwhile, the Ministry of Health released guidelines to large-scale social restrictions (Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar, PSBB). The guidelines restrict public activities in certain provinces that have been hit by COVID-19. The regulation also became the basis for closing of schools and offices; restrictions on religious activities in communal areas, activities in public spaces and facilities, social and cultural activities; limitation of public transport modes and private vehicles; and other restrictions concerning defence and security aspects.
All 34 Provinces in Indonesia identified with positive cases: the top five highest numbers being in DKI Jakarta, West Java, Banten, East Java and Central Sulawesi provinces.