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Somalia: Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Assessment (February 2021)

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In Somalia, 4.5 million people are still in need of humanitarian Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) support1 after decades of protracted crisis. United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations, and organizations specialised in assessments collect large amounts of data, which is often challenging to analyse because of its overwhelming amount, uneven quality and incomplete coverage. This report is collating data and information in order to provide an overview of the state of the humanitarian situation in Somalia with regards to WASH needs.
The general objective of this report is to better understand and analyse WASH-related needs across Somalia to support evidence-based planning and advocacy by the WASH cluster. To achieve this goal, it contains the following specific objectives:

  1. To understand the current WASH-related needs in Somalia.

  2. To identify key factors and underlying causes of these needs and vulnerabilities.

  3. To lay the foundation for continued monitoring and analysis by the WASH cluster of WASH related needs across Somalia.

  4. To provide a robust evidence base to assist WASH cluster planning in Somalia and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of programming.

The report uses three sources of data to inform its analysis2 . First, a review of quantitative WASH data, which includes data used by the WASH cluster in support of the 2020 Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) and Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP). Second, REACH’s fourth annual Joint Multi-Cluster Needs Assessment (JMCNA); a survey conducted in July 2020 with 10,222 households across 54 of the 74 districts in Somalia, results of which are available for households from both IDP and non-IDP settlements at the district-level. Finally, results of a WASH/COVID-19 focused knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey based on key informant (KI) interviews which have been conducted in September 2020 across seven locations Somalia, one in each state to ensure complete geographic coverage are used to understand WASH-related needs in the context of the pandemic.

The following key indicators used for the JMCNA show the pressing level of WASH needs in Somalia.3 Sixteen percent (16%) of households reported not having access to enough drinking water, 39% reported having no access to an improved water source, 45% reported having no access to soap, while more than half of HHs reported lacking access to improved latrines and menstrual hygiene materials.