Context, Shocks/events and Impact of the Crisis
A year after the start of the political transition in Sudan, humanitarian needs continue to grow across the country, despite progress made in the implementation of the objectives of the 39-month transition period and the peace process. The situation is driven by an economic crisis, exacerbated by COVID-19 containment measures, protracted internal displacement that is yet to find durable solutions, unprecedented flooding in 2020, disease outbreaks, and more than 1.1 million refugees and asylum seekers hosted by Sudan.
Humanitarian partners estimate that about 13.4 million people – 29 per cent of the population – will need humanitarian assistance throughout 2021. This is 4.1 million people more compared to 2020 and an increase of 44 per cent in the year. Overall, the number of people in need in Sudan in 2021 is the highest reported in the past decade.
Of the 13.4 million people in need, about 7.3 million need emergency assistance for lifethreatening needs related to critical physical and mental well-being. Meanwhile, 13.3 million people require life-sustaining support to meet minimum living standards. The Health sector has the highest number of people in need – 9.2 million, followed by WASH – 9 million, and the Food Security and Livelihoods sector – 8.2 million people in need. 1 DTM Mobility Tracking figure of 2,399,433 plus the HAC figure for displacement populations in areas not covered by the DTM.
There are 2.5 million internally displaced people (IDPs) in Sudan. Most of them are in Darfur, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile, which have been the epicentres of conflict over the past 17 years. These are also the areas where 52 per cent of people in need are concentrated. This means that almost half of the people in need are in non-conflict central and eastern parts of the country, whereas in 2018, 74 per cent of people in need were in conflict areas - Darfur, South Kordofan and Blue Nile.
Over the past three years, the economic crisis and other exacerbating factors have rendered about 4.5 million people in central and eastern Sudan vulnerable and in need of humanitarian assistance.
Of the 1.1 million refugees in Sudan, about 75 per cent (763,000 people) are from South Sudan. Khartoum and White Nile states host two-thirds of all South Sudanese refugees in the country, with Khartoum having the highest number amongst all states.
COVID-19 affected all states, with Khartoum being the epicentre. Although Khartoum state accounts for the majority reported cases in the country, over 60 per cent of all COVID-19-related deaths have been reported from outside the capital, reflecting the low capacity of the health system and testing in peripheral states. Several diseases are endemic in Sudan such as malaria, cholera, dengue fever, and chikungunya with a tendency to cause annual outbreaks across several states.