This case study is based on applied research carried out in August 2019 by ISF-UTS and YPII in Manggarai district, Flores Island, Indonesia.
Manggarai is one of the two regions where YPII is working to deliver the WASH and Beyond – Transforming Lives in Eastern Indonesia project to improve the health, gender equality and wellbeing of Indonesian communities through inclusive and sustainable WASH. Approximately 88% of the population in Manggarai has sanitation access: one-third of the population with access shares sanitation facilities, one-third has semi-permanent improved toilets and one-third has permanent improved toilets in their homes, while 7583 (12%) is without sanitation access and households practise open defecation.
ISF-UTS and YPII selected three villages in different subdistricts for the case study research based on their different geographies, climatic/environmental conditions, WASH coverage and livelihoods sources. The first village we visited, Golo Langkok in Rahong Utara, has 677 households and 100% sanitation access and access to water (piped supply to houses and public standpipes) through a local water company. It is in a mountainous region with high rainfall and community members grow cloves and other food crops.
The second village, Wae Codi in Cibal Barat, has 405 households and 100% sanitation access and a water supply (mostly public standpipes) managed by PAMSIMAS (a Government of Indonesia water and sanitation initiative). It is in a mountainous area, often dry, and community members largely rely on subsistence farming.
The third village, Kelurahan Baru in Reok, has 456 households and 52% sanitation access and a water supply (mostly piped supply to houses) from PAMSIMAS. It receives high rainfall, and is a rural port town. Livelihoods include small retail businesses, trade and farm labouring.
Across all three of these villages, it is also common for people to receive remittances from family members who have migrated for work to other cities in Indonesia, Asia or the Middle East.