People In Need
In close collaboration with the Government of Nigeria, partners, communities, and populations of concern, IOM seeks to respond to humanitarian and protection needs of those impacted by the crisis in north-east Nigeria and to support progress towards the achievement of durable solutions.
Since the beginning of 2014, north-east Nigeria has witnessed an increase in violence perpetrated by non-State armed groups (NSAGs), causing a major humanitarian crisis. The intensification of attacks has resulted in prolonged insecurity, exacerbating the plight of vulnerable civilians and triggering waves of forced displacement as well as the violation of human rights. The COVID-19 pandemic has further aggravated the already dire living conditions and the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance in north-east Nigeria rose from 7.9 million at the beginning of 2020 to 10.6 million. According to IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) Round 33, dated August 2020, the total number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) has increased to over 2.1 million.
For those displaced, the situation on the ground remains urgent and most remain dependent on humanitarian assistance. The security situation remains volatile and unpredictable, limiting humanitarian access across north-east Nigeria. Restrictions due to COVID-19 are further aggravating the situation. A substantial number of IDPs have nevertheless returned to their communities of origin. As of August 2020, IOM recorded over 1.7 million returnees across the three worst-affected states (Borno, Adamawa and Yobe). However, resources in communities of origin are very scarce and often insufficient to meet the basic needs of returnees in addition to those of home communities. Severe damage to, or destruction of, community infrastructure, as well as the lack of access to adequate basic services, property loss, local community tensions, and lack of employment opportunities undermine the sustainability of return and reintegration, as demonstrated by past and current waves of secondary displacement.
In the North Central and North West, conflict dynamics largely attributed to development deficits, weak systems of governance at multiple levels, the impact of climate change, increased competition over land and water resources, land ownership, multi-dimensional poverty, weak security compounded with growing inequalities have created pockets of instability. The simmering crisis is characterised by acts of kidnapping, banditry, and growing fears of a “land bridge” to the Sahel for NSAGs activities. With growing insecurity, the number of IDPs continues to grow, with 600,000 registered as displaced based on information IOM is collecting in accessible locations.