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Assessing preventive health behaviors from COVID-19: a cross sectional study with health belief model in Golestan Province, Northern Iran

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Hossein Shahnazi, Maryam Ahmadi‑Livani, Bagher Pahlavanzadeh, Abdolhalim Rajabi, Mohammad Shoaib Hamrah, and Abdurrahman Charkazi

Infectious Diseases of Poverty volume 9, Article number: 157 (2020) | Cite this article

Abstract

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new viral disease that has caused a pandemic in the world. Due to the lack of vaccines and definitive treatment, preventive behaviors are the only way to overcome the disease. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the preventive behaviors from the disease based on constructs of the health belief model.

Methods: In the present cross-sectional study during March 11–16, 2020, 750 individuals in Golestan Province of Iran were included in the study using the convenience sampling and they completed the questionnaires through cyberspace. Factor scores were calculated using the confirmatory factor analysis. The effects of different factors were separately investigated using the univariate analyses, including students sample t-test, ANOVA, and simple linear regression. Finally, the effective factors were examined by the multiple regression analysis at a significant level of 0.05 and through Mplus 7 and SPSS 16.

Results: The participants’ mean age was 33.9±9.45 years; and 57.1% of them had associate and bachelor’s degrees. Multiple regression indicated that the mean score of preventive behavior from COVID-19 was higher in females than males, and greater in urban dwellers than rural dwellers. Furthermore, one unit increase in the standard deviation of factor scores of self-efficacy and perceived benefits increased the scores of preventive behavior from COVID-19 by 0.22 and 0.17 units respectively. On the contrary, one unit increase in the standard deviation of factor score of perceived barriers and fatalistic beliefs decreased the scores of the preventive behavior from COVID-19 by 0.36 and 0.19 units respectively.

Conclusions: Results of the present study indicated that female gender, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, fatalistic beliefs, perceived interests, and living in city had the greatest preventive behaviors from COVID-19 respectively. Preventive interventions were necessary among males and villagers.