Since 2011, IOM has provided life-saving assistance and early-recovery and resilience programmes for Syrians affected by the conflict across the region, as well as for the communities and countries which host them. In 2020, IOM will continue to implement activities in Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq and Egypt as part of the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP). IOM's interventions will be multi-sectoral in nature, responding to the needs and priorities of affected populations and leveraging IOM's operational presence, technical expertise and strong relationships with national and local authorities.
The vast majority of Syrian refugees globally are located in Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq and Egypt. As of December 2019, Turkey hosted over 3.6 million registered Syrian refugees, with Lebanon hosting over 900,000 and Jordan over 650,000. With the conflict in Syria still ongoing, and conditions generally deemed non-conducive or unsafe for return, most refugees are likely to remain in their host countries in the short- to medium-term. Spontaneous voluntary returns to Syria remain very low, and resettlement of Syrian refugees to third countries has dropped significantly over the last years. As a result, continued support to countries and communities hosting Syrian refugees will be critical in 2020 and beyond. The political and economic situations in these hosting countries have exacerbated some of the underlying vulnerabilities faced by Syrian refugees, 70% of whom live in poverty. The additional pressure on basic services and limited employment opportunities also risks increasing social tensions between refugees and host communities.
While there are specific challenges faced by Syrian refugees in each hosting country, there are overarching priorities throughout the region, including, but not limited to: delivery of assistance to enable refugee households to meet their basic needs (covering a variety of sectors); increasing livelihoods opportunities; the provision of a range of protection support (including mental health and psychosocial support – MHPSS); and enhancing local and national capacities for service delivery (education, health etc.). Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP) efforts are closely linked to the Sustainable Development Goals and the Global Compact on Refugees.