Crisis Impact Overview
Heavy rains have caused extensive flooding in Chad, Niger and Nigeria since the onset of rainy seasons in June. Chad’s rainy season, expected to last until October, is the heaviest in the past 30 years (OCHA 25/08/2020). Flooding in Niger has affected almost twice the estimated population. Flooding in Nigeria is less widespread than in 2019, but is still significant (NIHSA 06/2020; OCHA 21/07/2020).
Almost 60% of all affected people and over half of reported deaths from the three countries are in Niger, the country most affected by floods (UNHCR 15/09/2020). Flooding has affected more than 516,000 people across all eight regions, and resulted in at least 71 deaths (UNHCR 17/09/2020; OCHA 24/09/2020). Nigeria is at risk of crossborder flooding, given it is downstream from other flood-affected countries along the Niger River basin, including Niger (HNO 12/2019).
In all three countries, heavy rainfall and flash floods have resulted in the widespread destruction of shelters, driving displacement. Emergency shelters are overcrowded and unsanitary, increasing the risk of COVID-19 infection and the spread of water-borne diseases (IOM 1/09/2020; OCHA 07/09/2020).
The Boko Haram insurgency in the Lake Chad region complicates flood relief efforts and increases protection concerns for highly vulnerable displaced populations in all three countries. The situation is most severe in northeast Nigeria, where over 2.7 million people are displaced and 10.6 million people are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance, especially food, shelter and WASH (OCHA 14/09/2020; UNHCR 31/07/2020). Additionally, cross-border violence from Mali affects northwest Niger and insecurity caused by banditry poses further risks to flood-affected populations in northwest Nigeria.