The majority of Darfur livelihoods depend on farming and pastoralist systems of production, either directly or indirectly. These two systems, or livelihood specializations, have given rise to livelihood strategies predominantly based on either farming or pastoralism, or a combination of both.
Traditional farming is rainfed, with some irrigation in the cool dry season in the seasonal riverbeds and valleys known as wadis. Pastoralism is an extensive grassland-based form of livestock production that depends on livestock moving to access water and grazing resources in areas of high rainfall variability. Types and patterns of livestock mobility vary enormously. Agro-pastoralism is a production system that includes both cultivation and pastoralist livestock production. This brief focuses on the relationship and integration between pastoralism and farming systems and pays particular attention to pastoralism, because it is generally less well understood.