2019 IN REVIEW
This Annual Report presents information on the achievements of the CAR Humanitarian Fund during the 2019 calendar year. However, because grant allocation, project implementation and reporting processes often take place over multiple years (CBPFs are designed to support ongoing and evolving humanitarian responses), the achievement of CBPFs are reported in two distinct ways:
Information on allocations for granted in 2019 (shown in blue). This method considers intended impact of the allocations rather than achieved results as project implementation and reporting often continues into the subsequent year and results information is not immediately available at the time of publication of annual reports.
Results reported in 2019 attributed to allocations granted in 2019 and prior years (shown in orange). This method provides a more complete picture of achievements during a given calendar year but includes results from allocations that were granted in previous years. This data is extracted from final narrative reports approved between 1 February 2019 - 31 January 2020.
Figures for people targeted and reached may include double counting as individuals often receive aid from multiple cluster/sectors.
Contribution recorded based on the exchange rate when the cash was received which may differ from the Certified Statement of Accounts that records contributions based on the exchange rate at the time of the pledge.
The humanitarian crisis is more than ever a protection crisis as the physical integrity, dignity, and human rights of Central Africans are tested on a daily basis. Despite the hopes raised by the signing of the Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation (APPR) in February 2019 and the consequent reduction in confrontations between armed groups in the first half of 2019, armed violence continued unabated, leading to losses of human lives, suffering, and increased displacement. Murders, kidnappings, arbitrary arrests and detentions, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment as well as extortion, looting, destruction or appropriation of property are recorded every day. Beyond the daily violence in certain sub-prefectures, incidents of extreme violence have resulted in the death of dozens of people and the displacement of thousands of civilians (Bakouma in January,
Paoua, and Bocaranga in May, Mingala in August Bria in September and Birao in the last quarter of the year). It is therefore understandable that 41 per cent of households in the country fear for their safety and 42 per cent of them for that of their children.
Recent conflict leading to displacements
As of December 2019, almost 670,000 people have been displaced across the country, including over 214,000 in sites. In parallel, 592,000 Central Africans crossed the border to take refuge in the neighboring countries of Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo and Chad. This human mosaic became more complex in the first half of 2019 when the return dynamics of displaced people accelerated. Indeed, one in three alerts from the rapid response mechanism (RRM) was linked to the return between January and August 2019. It is estimated that 360,000 people would have returned to their places of origin, including 295,000 in need of protection. These people are very vulnerable as they return to areas where violence continues, where livelihood opportunities are lacking and where basic infrastructure is destroyed or insufficient to support themselves and those of host communities.
Internally displaced girls and women are particularly vulnerable to the risks and threats of protection, including from gender-based violence, especially those living in the sites as well as elderly and disabled women. Between January and December 2019 alone, 11,777 cases of GBV were recorded by the GBVIMS system, of which 94 per cent were in women and girls. An appallingly high number considering the partial geographic coverage (one fifth of the country) of the system and the underreporting of incidents by victims due to structural factors such as stigma, or judicial impunity.
The contextual analysis of the HNO has shown that half of the population does not trust formal justice.
Children are the direct victims of the conflict because of the risks of family separation, the risks of recruitment by armed groups and forces, child trafficking and forced labor, dropping out of school, but also sexual violence and forced marriage for the little girls. Children are particularly vulnerable in areas where violence has added to long-term problems such as weak state child protection systems, low birth registration rates, and discriminatory cultural burdens towards girls.
Violence does not only have an impact on the protection of people. They are also factors aggravating critical problems related to living conditions and the physical and mental well-being of populations. First, insecurity limits the movement of goods, the functionality of markets, and their access by people. When people also find it challenging to go to the fields to cultivate and eat, this has a significant impact on their food security. 75 per cent of the population depends on the agricultural sector to cover their food consumption and ensure their income. Second, insecurity drastically reduces access to basic services such as water, education, and health. In addition to the direct destruction of infrastructure during the conflict and the flight of personnel, insecurity prevents children from going to school or the sick from seeking health care. For example, in the sub-prefectures of Satema and Markounda, almost a quarter (24% and 23% respectively) of deliveries take place at home because access to maternity is dangerous. Restricted access to health care for women partly explains why maternal mortality remains one of the highest in the world in CAR, with 980 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Finally, insecurity hampers the redeployment of civil servants and public services to areas where people need it most. If 3,400 civil servants were present at the end of 2018 out of the 6,500 at the national level, there were only 29 in the Vakaga or 40 in the Basse-Kotto. In these two prefectures, more than 90 per cent of the population is in need of humanitarian assistance.
Humanitarian Response Plan
2.6M People in need
1.6M People targeted
$401M Funding requirement
Lack of access to basic services
The structural lack of access to basic services is one of the underlying factors of humanitarian needs and creates the dependence of populations on emergency services provided by humanitarian workers in many areas of the country.
The essential services, such as access to food, water and health are considered to be the three priority needs by the affected communities.
Water-Hygiene-Sanitation: Considering the impact of the conflict on access to water, many infrastructures have been abandoned due to insecurity or the unavailability of spare parts, not to mention the contamination of certain water points by human bodies. This situation creates considerable risks of transmission of waterborne diseases and negatively affects the nutritional health of girls and boys.
The HNO analysis also indicates that 601,000 girls and boys will be at risk of waterborne diseases in 2020. It also demonstrates that the internally displaced are particularly vulnerable considering the unhealthy conditions and the proximity observed in the places of displacement.
Health: Health and health infrastructures were also collateral damage of the conflict. The latter are the targets of attacks by armed groups when they are not abandoned due to the flight of populations and medical personnel. The data speak for themselves: 28 attacks on the health system and its personnel were recorded between January and December 2019, which resulted in 24 health staff affected, 6 injured and 10 health structures partially or completely destroyed.
This weakness of the health system does not meet the needs caused by the increase in the number of injured, physically disabled, persons suffering from mental disorders, victims of rape, the incidence of infectious diseases and epidemic outbreaks However, the deadly epidemics such as polio, measles, and monkey pox observed in 2019, without taking into account the risk of Ebola virus disease, have demonstrated the risks relating to the weaknesses of the healthcare system and epidemiological surveillance as well as the lack of prevention measures.
This poor health coverage is all the more critical as it reduces the capacity to screen and care for the thousands of malnourished girls and boys in the country. Indeed, acute malnutrition continues to be a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of five. In 2020, approximately 178,000 children will be in need of treatment for global acute malnutrition, including 49,000 children aged 6 to 59 months suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM)who are at risk of dying without immediate treatment.
Malnutrition: One of the leading causes of malnutrition, in addition to poor access to water and health care, is food insecurity. To date, food insecurity remains a major humanitarian problem in CAR, with 1.6 million people food insecure, according to the IPC analysis of September 2019. In the absence of sustained food assistance, 2.1 million people will find themselves in an emergency situation from the start of the lean season in 2020. The most vulnerable people live in areas with a high concentration of displaced people such as Bria, Kaga-Bandoro, Obo, Rafai, and Zemio, classified in the emergency phase.
Extreme poverty: In the country that is ranked second to last in the world in terms of Human Development Index, extreme proverty and underdevelopment aggravate and reinforce most of the humanitarian consequences. This also leads to widespread negative coping mechanism amongst the affected population.
Education: Children are the primary victims of the crisis in CAR as their education and their opportunities for the future have been brutally taken away. More than one million girls and boys of school age will be in need of humanitarian education assistance in 2020, including 156,000 children with disabilities. Once again, this dramatic situation can be explained both by structural weaknesses linked to long-term failures in the education system and by the impact of the crisis on the latter. The number of attacks on teaching staff increased and 378 elementary schools remained non-functional during the 2018-2019 school year.