The World Bank is actively working with ministries of education in dozens of countries in support of their efforts to utilize educational technologies of all sorts to provide remote learning opportunities for students while schools are closed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and is in active dialogue with dozens more.
In support of this work, the World Bank is cataloguing emerging approaches, by country, in an internal database. In case related information may be useful to others, we are sharing excerpts from this database here.
A large number of content offerings have been compiled on the Ministry of Education's website.
Learning platforms like Moodle and LMS are being used, as well as cloud solutions from companies such as Microsoft and Google. The content platform Eduthek, developed by the Ministry, offers learning and exercise material from external providers for kindergarten and pupils of all school levels to practise at home and to deepen their knowledge. Currently numerous publishers and providers from schoolbooks are offering some of their content free of charge.
Since 18 March 2020, the public TV station ORF 1 has been offering a special education program for students at all school levels. Every morning between 6-9 am the program for pre-school and primary school children is broadcast. Afterward, the three-hour programme "ORF-1-Freistunde" offers an educational programme for students aged 10+. Documentaries, informational segments and explanatory videos are shown, as well as a news format specially designed for this target group. Students can express their questions and needs and contribute with videos and messages. The programs are also offered in the “Mediathek” for the duration of school closings.
Based on the experience of the first two weeks of school closures, the Ministry is taking additional efforts to improve the efficiency of digital learning environment services. Currently the Ministry is working on a concept with guidelines for distance learning and on a concept for a Distance Learning Service Portal as a Single Point of Entry for teachers and school manager.
There are also regional initiatives: The City of Vienna now offers its free "Support 2.0" tutoring initiative for 10-14 year olds online, consisting of additional support in the German, mathematics and English for lower secondary schools. These courses, previously offered kin schools, are now held virtually.
Counseling: School psychologists can be reached by telephone or e-mail. Currently psychological counselling is also available during evening hours and weekends. There are also counselling services (in 23 different languages!) for people who do not speak German.
Assessment: There is no performance assessment at the moment; assessment will most likely continue when students return to school.
The Futura Chanel has some curated content in their YouTube channel.
The states of Amazonas and Pará have launched a strategy relying heavily on the use of educational television (the Brazilian Amazon region has a long tradition on this, dating back to the 1970s). Their content is also available in their YouTube channel, and is complemented with their online platform.
Ministry of Education and Science launched an e-learning system (starting on March 16). Publishers provide online textbooks from grades 1-10 for free. Regional educational institutions are supporting 65,000 teachers and over 700,000 students through videos and webinars. School education content is being broadcast through the channels BNT 2 and BNT 4.
Nearly 89% of students are enrolled in e-learning. Each student is enrolled in distance learning six hours a day, including through broadcast lessons on national television channels. Parents assist pedagogical specialists in the implementation of the instructions and tasks set, and support younger children with equipment issues and provide opportunities for their children to watch lessons on Bulgarian national television.
To support distance learning, the Ministry of Education and Science (MES) has developed a National Electronic Library of Teachers (e-Content Repository), which publishes materials of pedagogical specialists for working in e-learning environment, including video lessons, training programs, innovative methodologies, tests, films, exercises, entertaining pedagogy and presentations, as well as projects related to both independence in performing in an electronic environment, as well as with research, student work, curiosity, motivating elements, feedback, group and individual work, creation and the application of a variety of skills.
All schools have been sent accounts to work on the Microsoft TEAMS platform, which is free of charge. Profiles have been created for all students and teachers. A helpdesk and a phone for questions at the MES are provided.
Each higher education institution independently organizes the distance learning process of its students by using various online platforms and video conferencing software through which distance learning sessions are conducted, as well as other communication channels. Programs such as Office 365, Skype, Blackboard are used. Access and cloud services are being created.
On the website of the Ministry of Education and Science, there is information about a "telephone e-education" service to answer questions and provide suggestions related to the educational process.
Assessment: The government is updating legislation concerning grading and assessment in order to take into account the distant learning context.
In Chile, the Aptus platform hosts digital learning materials. team from the Chilean Ministry of Education has made this content available to other countries in the region to deal with the closure of schools generated by COVID-19. Some of these materials include free class videos produced in Chile for children from ages 4-13 (especially useful for teaching literacy).
The following information is excerpted from the very useful UNESCO article, How is China ensuring learning when classes are disrupted by coronavirus?
On February 9, nearly 200 million primary and secondary school students in China started their new semester – online. With all schools closed due to the coronavirus outbreak, the country embarked on what might amount to the largest simultaneous online learning exercise in human history. The Ministry of Education launched an initiative entitled “Ensuring learning undisrupted when classes are disrupted.” Over the course of two weeks, with all face-to-face meetings banned, the Ministry organized teleconferences with school management agencies, online platform and course providers, telecom providers and other stakeholders to plan the implementation of the initiative.
To enable this, the Ministry of Education partnered with the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology in order to:
- Mobilize all major telecom service providers to boost internet connectivity service for online education, especially for the under-served regions.
- Upgrade the bandwidth of major online education service platforms, especially the capacity of the National Cloud-Platform for Educational Resources and Public Service in serving millions of visitors simultaneously.
- Mobilize society-wide resources for the provision of online courses and resources. More than 24,000 online courses have been made accessible for university students. 22 validated online course platforms, most them empowered by Artificial Intelligence, have been mobilized to provide primary and secondary schools with free online courses.
- Adopt flexible and appropriate methodologies to facilitate learning. Schools and teachers are advised to choose appropriate modes of delivery based on local e-readiness, including online platforms, digitalized TVs or mobile Apps. Teachers have received guidance on teaching methodologies including through live-streaming of online tutorials and MOOCs. The recommended number of online learning hours varies by grade.
- Strengthen online security through collaboration with the telecom sector and online platform service providers.
- Provision of psycho-social support and courses to impart knowledge about the virus and protection against it.
In Colombia, the preventive quarantine started the week of March 16, and the academic calendar was adjusted as a result. For the first two weeks, teachers were given time to prepare a pedagogical plan, in order to develop and create activities and tasks for the students, classes restarted 'at a distance' on March 20, with attention to two realities:
- Families with Internet access and tech resourceshave access to "aprender digital", a platform of the Ministry of Education with more than 80,000 digital learning resources, organized by grades, in different modalities (games, videos, etc.), accessible by for teachers, principals, and other actors, covering pre-primary to middle school education.
- For those who don't have access to internet, the government is designing a kit to learn from home ("kit de aprendizaje en casa"), also organized by grade, integrating different type of resources (games, self-learning resources, family activities, art…). They are going to build this in approximately 5 weeks, so that by April 20, Colombia will roll out a strategy for those families in zones with no connectivity and where the big distances don't allow other ways of work.
Colombia has begun broadcasting educational programs both in the public radio and TV for students from primary to middle school across the country, in coordination with teachers and educational institutions.
Related information from the ICT Ministry.
Costa Rica has a central web site that hosts digital learning resources and information for educators and developing a strategy to more explicitly support 'learning at home' as a result of the COVID-19 crisis. Recognizing the importance of television, as not all families have Internet access, they are using public media to broadcast educational programs (for kids, parents and teachers) about different subjects. Virtual content for teachers (a virtual classroom, a guide for autonomous work, etc.) is also being developed. They are planning on distributing this in hard copy formats for families with no Internet access. Recognizing the need to protect students learning online, they are also working on creating content related to cybersecurity for young people.
Organisation of distance teaching and learning in Croatia (chart and guidelines in English)
For grades 1-4 of primary school, classes are being organized via public television TV: actual teachers are filmed holding classes, given the lack of pre-existing content. Teachers send additional exercises for students to parents. Given their age, is is not expected that these children do use the Internet directly themselves, but rather they communicate with their teachers via their parents. For children aged 6-10, no special resources have been foreseen, since classes are delivered via TV and teachers communicate with parents via phone.
For grades 5-8 of primary school and for secondary school, video lessons are being filmed for every day, 15 minutes per subject, according to the national schedule. In case the situation lasts until the end of the school year, this would enable pupils to achieve all of the learning outcomes defined in the curricula. This national schedule foresees approximately 5 hours of schoolwork a day, but schools can add extra hours for their pupils. Video lessons are available both via TV and online. In addition, each school has organized a virtual teachers’ room and virtual classrooms on various platforms (Loomen, Microsoft Teams, Yammer) where teachers communicate daily with their pupils, give them instructions, check their activity and completion of tasks.
Telecommunications companies are also providing free Internet access (via SIM cards) to pupils of lower socio-economic status.
For higher education, the Ministry has issued a note directing higher education institutions to organize online classes by themselves, with central support, including an LMS.
A helpdesk was set up by public agencies to provided help for users. All communication channels were set up in three days, with some initial problems related to network congestion and breakdowns, since resolved.
For children with special needs and disabilities, the Ministry made a recommendation to pedagogical staff at schools to design online classes adapted to such children.
The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MEYS) launched on March 12 the website “Distance Education”, which supports schools and teachers in providing distance education. This web site contains links to on-line educational tools, updated information and examples of good practices, as well as experiences regarding distance education.
The Czech national TV broadcasts educational programming for pupils under the expert supervison of MEYS. On March 16, they set up and launched a live daily programme, “UčíTelka”, led by teachers for primary-school pupils (grades 1-5). In the afternoon, educational TV programmes are provided for lower-secondary pupils (grades 6-9). In addition, "inspirational programmes" for pupils prepare themselves for upper secondary entrance examinations (grade 9) are provided to help review topics covered in lower classes.
The Dominican Republic has created a central portal containing curated content, classified by grade. It is not only for use by public sector schools. Resources include a content repository, platforms for students and teachers, and a platform for secondary education.
They are using radio and TV to support learning at home and are preparing additional content.
Several companies have stepped up to disseminate learning content and related information.
They are also creating free wifi hotspots for learners and also supporting the creation of WhatsApp groups to provide additional support.
The Ministry of Education and Technical Education (MOETE) announced steps to implement distance learning and assessment during school suspension that began on March 15.
MOETE extended the access to the Egyptian Knowledge Bank (EKB) to students, providing content by grade level and subject (kindergarten through secondary education). Content is available in both Arabic and English to all students, parents and teachers (does not username/password). This site features multimedia (videos, images, documentary films) to help explain the various lessons, and numerous full text books, including dictionaries. The EKB can be accessed by mobile phone or computer.
A digital platform offers a communication channel between students and teachers to enable approximately 22 million students distributed over nearly 55,000 schools to communicate with teachers “as if they were present in the school”, explaining lessons, answering student questions, and taking exams online. Videos explaining how to do this are being developed. Students will receive a code from their teachers to enter a virtual class to continue electronically.
There is an arrangement with the Ministry of Communication and IT and mobile carriers to make available SIM cards at no cost to students if they have a device.
Assessment: For students at KG1-2 and grades 1-2, MOETE requires parents to make sure students complete the curriculum published on the electronic library and the platform. For grades 3-7 (transition years), exams will not be conducted for students at the end of the current school year. Instead, a research project for each subject will be completed on the electronic platform. For grades 10-11, students will take computer-based pilot tests from home using supplied tablets. The pilot test will be conducted (without grades) for grade 11 as a final rehearsal to prepare students for the year-end exam. Tests will not be corrected but will offer students the correct answer to self-adjust. The grade 10 and 11 final exam will be computer-based from home.
Egyptian students abroad will use the electronic platform and digital library. Examinations will not be taken.
In El Salvador, teachers and principals were organized to give guidance to parents by grade. In the case secondary education, parents are to serve as ‘self-learning guides’, assisting students as they look for different educational tools.
A virtual platform is being used to organize learning materials, which are gradually enriched over time. At each grade level, an entire repository of information is included, divided by subjects. Materials in various formats, including videos, are being developed, and teachers are creating and posting content to YouTube. Educational television is also being utilized.
A call center, staffed by five people, accompanied by six subject area specialists, responding to related questions around the clock. WhatsApp and email are also being used to enable consultations and support.
Ecuador is proceeding along two tracks: one for students with connectivity and one for students without connectivity. Work done remotely by students will not be graded.
Ecuador is developing a guide for teachers, who are being asked to engage continuously and continue with professional development activities (using Moodle, for example). More than 800 digital pedagogical resources are being shared using social media as well as via traditional media coverage such as radio and television. Materials are also in audio format, in order to reach remote areas. They have created a video tutorial explaining how to use to educational resources site and they are working on producing videos for the youngest kids as well.
Ecuador has created a dedicated email address and a telephone number to answer questions.
Virtual classrooms are being developed at the higher education level.
Education TV broadcasts are happening as well.
An online portal, Ma classe à la maison (My class at home) provides access to educational content and learning opportunities.
The Ministry of Education is developing an online learning platform with Microsoftat the general education level.
An agreement has been reached to with a television channel to provide access online lessons and educational programs.
Ten technology providers have been organized by the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC) to provide free access to online learning, including Ruangguru and Zenius. Other technology-based learning platforms being used in the country to help the students include Google Suite Education, Smart Class, Microsoft Teams, Quipper School, Sekolahmu and Kelas Pintar.
The Italian government created a web site to support schools to activate different forms of distance learning during the closure period linked to the coronavirus emergency. The links of the various sections of the following page allow users to reach and use the platforms and tools made available to educational institutions free of charge thanks to specific protocols signed by the Ministry of Education.
The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT**) **has a centralized website that synthesizes all information related to COVID19 response, including synthesis of diverse coping strategies that schools have undertaken. School districts and schools have employed different coping strategies. While many of them are ICT-based distance learning (e.g., online-class delivery, video-conferences, groupware based instructions), there are also many initiatives that maximize the usage of school grounds and facilities in a safe and healthy manner.
The Ministry of Education will be providing a daily schedule of the TV broadcast (on the sports channel) in Jordan of the lessons for the tawjihi. Lessons will be broadcast twice, once in the morning/early afternoon, and again in the afternoon/evening. Lessons are Arabic (all streams), computers (all streams), English (all streams), physics (industrial stream), mathematics (science stream), mathematics (other streams), history (literary stream), Arabic (literary and shariah streams), Jordanian history (all streams), and financial literacy (literary stream).
The Darsak educational portal launched on March 22, developed by Mawdoo3 (private sector firm). The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Digital Economy an Entrepreneurship) managed the whole process. Edraak, Jo Academy and Abwab also provided content. Includes classes/subjects for all grades. The content will be displayed on the platform according to a weekly schedule so that the displayed content remains available for one week only, then the content of the next week is displayed, and so on. The student can enter the materials at any time, with free (zero rated) browsing of the platform between 6 am and 4 pm.
The Ministry of Education has designed online learning programs and resources. Materials and programs will also be delivered using radio, television, YouTube and other platforms. Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC) will broadcast radio programs daily from Monday to Friday. Other broadcast platforms include the Edu Channel TV and EduTv YouTube channel overseen by the Kenya Institute for Curriculm Development (KICD). Learners can also access digital learning resources from the Kenya Education Cloud overseen by KICD.
Video lessons for primary and secondary schools’ key subjects and topics for the remaining learning period are under development and expected to be broadcast through two TV channels starting in April. The video lessons will also be available for free through a mobile app.
Students and teachers will be provided by SIM-cards for free access to the education app, education web pages and to use WhatsApp for free communication.
The Ministry of Education and Science announced a campaign, "Reading Family", through Facebook. Parents read and discuss books together with their children, post information on Facebook with hashtag #uido_kitep_okuibuz and pass on a baton to their friends via social networks. The most active families will be given gifts and nominated a title "Akurman Uy-buloo” (“Erudite Family").
A free mobile application, "Matriculant RG", was launched for students and teachers in grades 9-11 for remote training on admission tests (ORT). The app includes samples of admission tests to Russian universities.
CEATM (a private testing company) launched online lessons on preparation to admission tests.
Orange Liberia announced that it is granting free access to online educational content to students and teachers while all schools and universities are closed via website called Orange Campus Africa. Orange customers who don’t have data will still be able to visit the web site and enjoy educational materials provided, and those who have data can also visit the website and none of their data balance will be consumed while they browse, read or study from the site. The web site includes a host of resource partners including Khan Academy. Other content providers include Wikibooks, Wiktionary, and Wikipedia. While each of these providers has a range of content for all ages, there is also specific content for younger children, including Vikidia which caters to children between the ages of 8 – 1. Project Gutenberg, a volunteer based effort to digitize and archive cultural works, is one of the sites included in the program.
Liberia began an educational radio program on March 27.
The education ministry struck a deal with local television stations to broadcast “compulsory” lessons for middle and secondary schoolchildren.
The Ministry of Education has instructed schools to identify students who do not have access to either television or internet services and is currently engaged in research into alternative teaching methods to ensure the education of students go uninterrupted. It is also preparing a scheme to teach students at all educational levels online, which will be implemented in the event the opening of schools is postponed further. A tele-class program was launched on PSM’s Yes TV for 10th graders. However, some students in the atolls do not have access to television or internet services, cutting off their access to such classes.
Education Ministry is also working on holding classes through radio channels, and has already initiated discussions regarding airing tele-classes with Dhiraagu through is broadcasting channel. The scheme is targeted for students below the tenth grade. Under the scheme, the digital resources needed to teach the students will be prepared and developed. The resources will be shared with students via the education portal and online. The resources will be issued separately for each subject. After the government closed all schools, the Education Ministry introduced a new TV program named 'Telekilaas' to deliver lessons to tenth grade students preparing to sit the O'level exams this year. The program will be aired on state media 'Public Service Media' (PSM) and Yes TV from 8 am in the morning until 2 pm every day. The timetable for each day will be published on the Education Ministry's social media handles the previous day. Lessons will be carried out by Public Service Media (PSM)'s 'YES TV', Google Classroom, Youtube and 'TED-Ed'. The government is also working towards launching its educational platform, 'Filaa'. Pre-recorded videos are to air from approximately 8 am to 1 pm every weekday, after which a live interaction session called 'Subject Forum' will be conducted between students and teachers for one hour.
The Ministry of Education has been broadcasting lessons on TV since February. For every class and subject through secondary school. The Ministry is making all of these lessons available online.
The government has decided that learning will happen online. The government put together some content in order to help students with their remote learning. Key resources include a digital learning content repository (in Arabic and French) for primary, secondary and baccalaureate levels, as well as other materials.
The national channel 4 is broadcasting educational classes.
A MOOC platform (mainly in French) serves university level learners. They have uploaded a content repository from universities of Morocco.
The government signed an agreement with Microsoft to cover the e-learning needs of 60,000 teachers and 1,200,000 students at zero cost.
The government is using different channels to distribute learning content: Internet, TV and radio.
Mobile phones are also being used to share related information (for example, “press 1 for information of 1st grade, press 2 for information on grade 2”, etc.
The Ministry of Education is curating digital content (its own content and content from allies and partners) and well as supporting the creation of new content, in order to have content that aligns with all of the curriculum.
In a first stage, the Ministry is sensitizing the population, doing awareness raising, and working in different topics with families. In a second stage, the Ministry has begun to focus more on distance learning, prioritizing its “plataforma unica” (a single learning platform).
Curated content is being made be available in the national radio and TV, and the Ministry is working with local radio channels to broadcast the education content in local languages.
Educational videos are being created for access via dedicated apps and on the web. This content is also being made available in audio format for radio transmission.
Online platforms such as Russian online school, Yandex.textbook, Teach.ru, Yaklass and Дневник.ру are available for teachers, pupils and parents. Russian IT companies are also supporting the Russian education system. For example, Mail.ru provides access to its platform for online learning, Yandex provides video classes for schoolchildren in grades 5-11, and GeekBrains gives free access to its programming courses.
The Ministry of Education has also launched a hot line to support regional ministries, schools and colleges in organizing distance learning.
A working group in the Ministry of Science and Higher Education was established to help the higher education institutions to organize distance learning. By now, all the universities, which are reporting to the federal ministry (248), and almost 70% of all the Russian universities have transferred the educational process online., which was launched in the Instagram. Using the Instagram hashtag #универдома (“uni at home”), students and university staff are sharing their ideas in adapting to a new online learning environment.
The Ministry holds regular online translation on the Ministry’s YouTube channel and organizes webinars for universities. The Ministry has also launched a hotline and a website for universities (“Keep learning, Keep teaching”) with methodological support and has published a list of available free online courses on its web page. The University 2035 (the online platform established by the Agency of Strategic Initiatives) will also provide methodological support to universities. Universities are sharing their experience in the moving educational process online on the Scienpolicy Telegram channel. The Ministry is currently piloting a new service for school graduates so that they can apply to the university programs online, using the state portal Gosuslugi.
The Ministry of Education (MOE) is utilizing TV and social media to broadcast lessons for all grades and have designated 127 supervisors and teachers to deliver daily lessons in 112 educational subjects through 19 TV channels (broadcasting nationally from a classroom in Riyadh).
Students are offered five options by the ministry for virtual learning.
Telkom ZA has zero rated education websites to provide cost free access to learners.
The Tunisia-based Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) launched an e-learning initiative on March 12 that aims to ensure the continuity of learning and teaching during the coronavirus pandemic. ALECSO has prepared a dedicated website aggregating a list of freely accessible Arab educational resources, websites, platforms and applications for use by students and teachers, in collaboration with partners and experts in the field of educational technology. Ten North African and 12 Arab countries are to benefit from this initiative.
Education in Turkey is conducted remotely using EBA (Eğitim Bilişim Ağı), an education digital platform. The CEO of Turk Telekom noted that 18 million students can use EBA; however, not everyone has online access. The Ministry of National Education (MoNE) is reviewing options to support families with extra 6 GB – 8 GB data packages.
Educational TV is also being utilized to mitigate Internet access and bandwidth problems. EBA programs adapted for TV during COVID-19. Seven TV companies are broadcasting EBA programs. Primary school, middle school and high school education programs are being broadcast in 18 different channels, with six different channels assigned to each education level. The EBA TV Programs are shorter than the actual class length. Thousands of videos and animations have been prepared. More than 100 teachers voluntarily taped their courses for TV. MoNE is working to to better review/vet available distance education materials.
The EBA program has apps accessible through smart phones.
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
The UAE government says that says it can offer a free education to 50 million Arab schoolchildren with its digital teaching platform, madrasa.org.
The National Administration of Public Education (ANEP), together with Plan Ceibal, has created a virtual classroom so that children can carry out activities during these days and the exchange between the teacher and the student is encouraged. Families are encouraged to accompany their children to use it during the suspension of classes.
Plan Ceibal makes available to teachers a series of resources that can help sustain educational activity and will provide distance programs:
- The CREA Platform (LMS) for classroom management features content from each class. Each teacher can upload materials, guide discussion forums, submit and grade assignments, track students, take various types of assessments and use it as a means of communication.
- All the curricular contents of mathematics from Initial 5 to 3 of Education Media are available on the math platforms (PAM and Matific). A digital library (Biblioteca Ceibal) provides access to more than 7,000 contents, including textbooks, recreational reading, audio stories, videos, songs, and images. A repository of Open Educational Resources (REA) contains content of various subjects. More than 50 educational applications included in student tablets, with content for students from in grades 1-3 at the primary level.
- Web platforms support videoconferencing to transmit video in bulk through the Internet (streaming), with the possibility to receive and answer questions or comments by chat and for teachers to interact by video with all the members of a class.
WEST BANK and GAZA
To serve the students affected by school closures, the Ministry of Education is turning to distance learning (E-learning), with lessons to be broadcast via Youtube, radio, and television for students.
Activating the work intensively through the portal of the electronic communication environment, which serves. An educational portal connects students and parents with teachers and school management at all educational stages, from grades 1-12.
An educational portal accessed through the Ministry website contains a variety of educational materials, interactive educational games, and a link to the central YouTube channel.
Initiatives have been worked out with private start-ups to implement and experience online virtual classroom management of several schools, starting from Bethlehem District, and broadcast by teachers through an educational portal called Tollabco Students.
For the Tawjihi Students, Palestine TV and Al Quds Educational TV were contracted through the Ministry to broadcast educational classes for students.
This crisis has motivated teachers and they started to made distance learning groups, taking advantage of various websites, such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Google Forms.
For higher education, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research has asked all universities to conduct classes online beginning on March 14. Universities are using different strategies, such as blended learning, e-classes, and virtual classrooms. Applications such as Zoom and Google Hangouts are being deployed. Some universities have created an emergency plan to implement distance learning, starting with a format that will gather students into a virtual classroom using an online tool twice or three times a week, then, give students a week off to work on homework assignments and projects.
A weekly educational TV broadcast schedule, with only two subjects provided daily, each subject shown four times (twice on Palestinian TV and twice through the website of the Al Quds Open University, a Palestinian university that has provided blended education since the 1990s). The subjects are English, Arabic, mathematics, biology, chemistry and physics.