By the beginning of 2020, it was clear that there was not enough information available to the Government of Mozambique and humanitarian actors about experiences of IDPs in displacement. As a result, IOM in partnership with the INGC has conducted this study to understand the challenges and capacities of displaced communities in central Mozambique to access one of the three durable solutions.
This piece of work is based on the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) framework on Durable Solutions for IDPs (2010) which identifies three durable solutions 1) local integration 2) resettlement and 3) return. The solutions emphasise the centrality of human rights and are comprised of eight specific criteria: long-term safety and security; adequate standard of living; access to livelihood and employment; access to effective and accessible mechanisms to restore housing, land, and property; access to personal and other documentation; family reunification; participation in public affairs; and access to effective remedies and justice. IDPs have found solutions when they “no longer have any specific assistance and protection needs that are linked to their displacement and can enjoy their human rights without discrimination on account of their displacement.” IOM recognizes that to achieve durable solutions is a long term, complex process which may take years. It requires concerted and coordinated effort from all levels of governments, partners, communities and individuals. Displacement is not linear.
Solutions which are found, may not be durable, and IDPs may continue to use a range of mobility strategies as coping mechanisms as a result of their displacement as they attempt to find greater stability.
This report does provide an initial evidence for programming which can be catalytic to move towards local integration of displaced communities in central Mozambique and eventually durable solutions. Importantly, the report provides an opportunity for the voices of internally displaced persons to be heard, and that the solutions identified can be adopted and supported by the government and humanitarian actors to better address their needs. Given the displacement context in Mozambique and the potential for further displacement, due to the ongoing effects of current displacement or anticipated future displacement, timing is critical. As such, it was necessary to quickly gather information to effectively respond to the needs of IDPs, focusing on one durable solution – resettlement. This is piece of work is one part of a broader effort to provide basic knowledge on the conditions facing IDPs in central Mozambique.