Overview and Methodology
The dynamic and multi-faceted nature of the South Sudanese displacement crisis has created significant challenges for the delivery of humanitarian aid. Accessibility and security issues within South Sudan have impeded a systematic understanding of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) needs in many areas of the country, and have created difficulties in establishing a clear and unambiguous system for prioritizing the delivery of aid, thereby limiting the effectiveness of humanitarian planning and limiting the potential impact of donor funding. As this crisis continues to expand, evolve and spill into neighbouring countries, it has become increasingly important to fill information gaps to inform a more effective humanitarian response and planning for immediate lifesaving WASH activities and contingency planning for durable solutions.
In 2018, REACH, in close coordination with the WASH Cluster, identified five core WASH indicators: 1. % of Households (HHs) by displacement status; 2. % of HHs reporting having safe access in under 30 minutes to an improved water source (borehole, tapstand, water yard) as their main source of drinking water; 3. % of HHs reporting having access to a latrine (private, shared, or communal/ institutional); 4. % of HHs reporting having access to key WASH Non-Food Items (NFIs) (soap, mosquito nets, water containers); and 5. % of HHs reporting that one or more HH member was affected by self-reported water or vector borne disease in the two weeks prior to data collection.
These five indicators were used to establish the first countrywide WASH baseline in July and August of 2018 during Round 22 of the Food Security and Nutrition Monitoring System (FSNMS). FSNMS partners agreed to once again incorporate WASH Cluster indicators for FSNMS Round 24 (July and August 2019). FSNMS is a seasonal countrywide assessment conducted, funded and run by the World Food Programme, UNICEF, and the Food and Agriculture Organization, and supported by REACH in Rounds 22-24. FSNMS, established in 2010, is a representative survey that employs twostage cluster sampling, using a state based sample size and cluster determination. In each county, access permitting, 9 clusters were selected and 12 households interviewed per cluster.
FSNMS is a critical source of information that allows for the identification of affected areas, the prioritization of resources and for monitoring trends. The data collected during FSNMS is used for the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) analysis, the Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) and the Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP), as well as additional decision making platforms.