The purpose of this report is to provide relevant information regarding the socio-economic situation in Damascus City for use in the context of international protection status determination, including refugee status and subsidiary protection, especially in view of the EASO country guidance development on Syria.
This report is produced in line with the EASO COI Report Methodology (2019) and the EASO COI Writing and Referencing Guide (2019).
This report should be read in conjunction with further 2019-2020 EASO COI reports on Syria, such as reports titled Security situation (November 2019), Actors (December 2019), Exercise of authority in recaptured areas (January 2020), Situation of women (February 2020), and other reports published on the EASO website. These reports provide relevant information regarding topics such as the main armed actors, targeted violence, and armed conflict developments in Syria for the purpose of developing country guidance on Syria.
This report contains information on the conflict in Syria since 2011 but focuses primarily on recent trends, with updated information on 2019 where available. The information gathered is a result of research using public, specialised paper-based and electronic sources until 3 January 2020. Some additional information was added during the finalisation of this report in response to feedback received from the peer review and quality control process, up until 30 January 2020.
The terms of reference (ToR) of this report were defined by EASO based on discussions held and input received from COI experts in the EASO Specialist COI network on Syria and from policy experts in EU+ countries4 within the framework of a Country Guidance development on Syria.
The ToR for this report can be found in the annex II. Thisreport covers a number of key socio-economic indicators useful for understanding the socio-economic situation in Damascus, as well as mobility related issues.
Due to the fast depreciation of the Syrian pound (SYP), in places in the report where unconverted SYP information appears, an approximate conversion has been added using historical currency conversion based on the time the source was published. To illustrate the currency drop’s impact in Syria, note that in January 2020, for example, the Financial Times reported that the Syrian Pound was in a ‘freefall’ and that there had been estimated increased prices changes in staple foods in Syria between October and December 2019 that went up in Damascus as follows: cooking fuel (about 38 %), milk (over 30 %), meat (almost 30 %), water (25 %). Across Syria, food commodities have increased in price by 20-30 % since October 2019.