In recent years, momentum at the political and policy levels on durable solutions has been matched by an expansion of the range and scale of durable solutions programming in Somalia. The European Union-funded RE-INTEG Programme (RE-INTEG) is a multi-year programme focused on the sustainable (re)integration of IDPs and returnees in Somalia, which commenced in 2017 and will conclude in 2020. RE-INTEG was followed by two further durable solutions-focused programmes in Somalia: Danwadaag1 and the Durable Solutions Programme2 (DSP), funded by DFID and Danida respectively.
This report focuses on the EU RE-INTEG interventions of three NGO-led consortia for which ReDSS is the learning partner: The Jubaland Solutions Consortium (JSC); The Enhancing Integration of Displacement Affected Communities in Somalia Consortium (EIDACS); and The Somaliland Durable Solutions Consortium (SDSC). These three consortia have adopted a harmonized, solutions-oriented approach. Four common outcomes- focused on community engagement, access to basic services, livelihoods, and research and learning- have been adopted.
Progress towards these collective outcomes is measured by 10 common IASC outcome-level indicators based on the ReDSS Durable Solutions Framework.
The objective of this report is to document learning and promising practices from the EIDACS, JSC and SDSC programmes in the following areas: 1) Strategy and approach, including the use of the IASC indicators; 2) Consortium governance structures and coordination within and between consortia; 2) Engagement with critical durable solutions stakeholders, particularly government representatives and displacement-affected communities (DACs); and 4) Learning and project adaptation. Key lessons learned and promising practices were identified through a desk review of key programme documentation and relevant external documents, and 20 key informant interviews with programme stakeholders, including RE-INTEG implementing and learning partners, the EU, representatives of government, and partners from other durable solutions consortia. Learning identified as part of this process is intended to inform ongoing and future solutions-focused programmes in Somalia and the wider region.
LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE EIDACS, JSC AND SDSC PROGRAMMES
Strategy and approach
Durable solutions programming can enable a coordinated approach to addressing displacement which spans the humanitarian-development-peace/state building nexus. The EU RE-INTEG programme has created the space for increased collaboration between political, humanitarian and development actors in efforts to advance (re)integration and support area-based development.
An effective area-based approach is dependent upon ensuring complementarity and coordination with other actors and programmes within the defined geographical area to address social, economic and political challenges and opportunities. An individual solutions-focused programme does not necessarily need to address all the needs and displacement-specific vulnerabilities within its area of implementation, however, it is important to understand the planning and interventions that exist, the gaps that can be filled, and the opportunities to advance solutions that can be capitalized on.
Durable solutions programming should work in complementarity with resilience programming in rural areas, and should promote both local integration in urban areas and, where the security situation allows, voluntary, safe and dignified return and reintegration in rural areas.
Durable solutions-focused programmes should develop a clear theory of change, which outlines a causal pathway for advancing (re)integration and addressing vulnerability across DACs.
IASC Indicators can be adopted into logframes, but in doing so they should be contextualized and clearly defined. A clear protocol for disaggregating data according to displacement status is also crucial to understand the extent of displacement-specific vulnerabilities and how these change over time.
There is a lack of evidence and consensus among durable solutions actors on what works and what does not in the process of measuring and monitoring progress towards (re)integration.
Durable solutions programming should support broader displacement-focused data collection and analysis efforts, and promote government ownership of these efforts.