Part 1: Crisis Impact and Humanitarian Consequences
1.1 Context of the Crisis
After a year of civil unrest and political change, humanitarian needs continue to rise. Some 9.3 million people – 23 per cent of the population – will need humanitarian assistance in 2020. The transitional government is prioritizing peace and ending the economic crisis, issues closely intertwined with the drivers of humanitarian need in the country.
While incidents of fighting have reduced considerably in recent years, the situation of people displaced due to decades of conflict remains unresolved. Some 1.87 million IDPs and 1.1 million refugees and asylum seekers continue to need humanitarian assistance and protection support, both in and out of camp camps and within host communities. Pockets of armed conflict continue in Darfur, and sporadic inter-communal conflicts also continue.
Across Sudan, basic services are lacking, and natural disasters, like floods, affect people each year. But it is a deepening economic crisis, following years of stagnation and little investment in already-weak public services, that is driving worsening food insecurity, deteriorating healthcare, and other needs across Sudan.
Throughout Sudan, most people – 58 per cent of households – cannot afford a basic daily food basket. Over 2.7 million children suffer from acute malnutrition. Medical facilities across the country are not functional due to lack of essential drugs.
Following months of civil protest, President Omar Al Bashir was removed from power on 11 April 2019, and a Transitional Military Council (TMC) was established. Civil protests, led by theAlliance for Freedom and Change Forces continued, calling for establishment of a civilian government, a further break with the previous regime, and ending internal conflicts. On 3 June, when security forces dismantled the “sit-in” area in front of army headquarters in Khartoum, more than 100 people were killed, and several hundred injured, at the site itself and across Khartoum.
After months of negotiations on the formation of a transitional government, on 21 August, Abdalla Hamdok was appointed Prime Minister. The Prime Minister will lead the government during a transition period of 39 months, after which democratic elections are to be held in the country for the first time in nearly 30 years. The Prime Minister has identified building sustainable peace and addressing the economic crisis as the transitional government’s top priorities.
Armed opposition continues in pockets of Darfur, as well as in the ‘Two Areas’ of South Kordofan and Blue Nile. In September, the government and a group of Sudanese armed movement leaders -including Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement – North (SPLM-N) Malik Agar faction, the Sudan Liberation Army – Minni Minnawi (SLA-MM) faction, among others –signed the “Juba Declaration”, which provides a way forward on peace negotiations. Meanwhile, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North faction led by Abdel Aziz al-Hilu (SPLM-N al-Hilu) and the Sudanese government have also signed a roadmap for negotiations and officialy began direct talks in Juba in October5 . The SLA-Abdul Wahid faction (SLA-AW) has distanced itself from these discussions and remains the only armed group actively involved in fighting inside Sudan.