In East Africa, harvest is underway for main season cereals in the north of the subregion and production prospects are generally favourable. Planting of second season cereals was recently completed in the south of the subregion, and heavy rains in October benefited crop establishment but triggered floods in several areas. In West Africa, harvest of main season sorghum and millet is underway across the Sahel and conditions are favourable with some concern due to dry conditions. In the Middle East and North Africa, early planting of winter wheat crops has started and conditions are favourable. In Southern Africa, winter wheat harvest has started and concern remains in Zimbabwe and parts of Zambia and South Africa due to dry conditions. In Central and South Asia, harvest of spring-planted cereal crops is complete and total output is estimated slightly below the five-year average, mainly due to a reduced output obtained in Kazakhstan. In Southeast Asia, wet-season rice is in final growing stages and there is concern across much of the region due to impacts from early season drought, followed by heavy rains and flooding in August from tropical cyclones. In Central America and the Caribbean, sowing of Segunda crops is underway and conditions are favourable.