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Water Resource Management and Geo-Physical Survey in Selected Communities of Borno State

Govt. Nigeria
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The existing water supply schemes at Maiduguri, Biu, Bama, Gwoza, Damboa and Askira have been studied to evaluate the water need of the present and future population. Detailed information on water production, population and water demand were collected and analysed. Problems that hamper the systems from operating at design capacities have been identified and rehabilitation measures recommended for restoring the systems to original design capacities. Where the installed capacities of the water schemes are inadequate to meet the present water demand even after full restoration of installed capacities, alternative water supply scheme were recommended as either short or long term interventions.

The installed production capacity, existing production and water demands for the present year as well as the existing gap and cost of bridging the gap of the six towns are given in table 1

Water Production was computed based on the "officially" documented sources of water supply in the towns. This includes all documented boreholes sunk either by Government (Federal, State or LGAs) or development partners. Also the capacities of treatment plants, where there is any, were included.

Privately owned water schemes like private boreholes and open wells, which in most cases are what majority of the populace depend on, are not included as many of them are considered unsafe and there are also no datato confirm their yields and production capacities. This explains the huge gap in water demand and supply in most of the towns studied.
The baseline for water demand computation is usually the population of an area, but due to insurgency, there is a large scale displacement of people all across the state. These have impacted on the population and the normal population projections will not represent the true situation in these towns.
Based on our consultations with the officials of Borno State Ministry of Water Resources (BSMWR) and Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (RUWASA), visits to these towns and the analysis of International Organization for Migration (IOM) Nigeria Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM)
Rounds, an empirical formula was arrived at which uses a percentage of the 2006 Census figures and the IOM DTM IDPs figures for these areas.

The main constraints to meeting installed capacities of the water schemes have been identified to be due to lack of maintenance, breakdown of electro-mechanical equipment as a result of voltage fluctuation, erratic power supply, low borehole yield, and age of the equipment. The treatment plant in the past relied on power supply from Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) through Yola Electricity Distribution Company (YEDC). Due to instability in the power supply and frequent power surges and fluctuation in voltage which damaged some of their equipment, the system was disconnected from PHCN and is now been powered entirely by generators.

The capacity building training is aimed at enabling Borno state water and sanitation institutions (Borno State Ministry of Water Resources (BSMWR) and Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (RUWASSA)) and their respective water professionals to improve their ability to perform their tasks and produce outputs in a sustainable way, accord the staff the ability to define, solve problems and make informed decisions.

The specific objectives of the training is to expose the participants to new productive thinking and global best practices, techniques and processes in the water sector; foster attitudinal change whilst building upon existing knowledge and experiences; encourage the practical application of learning in the work environment; as well as evaluate and document the learning experience.

Based on the outcome of this training it can be suggested that subsequent capacity building programmes has to be all inclusive of politicians, decision makers and top management of both organisations. The training should also be extensive, accommodate more practical session technical visits to learn from existing best practices.