Regional Flow Monitoring Network
34 Flow Monitoring Points (FMPs) and 11 mobile FMPs are currently operational in seven countries. In May 2019, one additional FMP was installed in Sarh, in southern Chad, where enumerators monitor the flows of travellers between Chad and the Central African Republic and Nigeria. The Zouarke FMP in northern Chad re-mains closed because of insecurity and lack of access in the region.
In Burkina Faso, data is collected at five FMPs located at strategic transit points throughout the country. In June 2019, an average of 2,163 individuals were ob-served crossing the FMPs daily - an in-crease of 3 per cent from the May figures (2,090). Across all FMPs in the country, a large majority of travellers had departed from Burkina Faso (85%), followed by the Niger (6%) and Togo (4%). Renewing with previous trends, the three primary intended destinations of migrants were Côte d’Ivoire (40%), the Niger (35%) and Burkina Faso (15%). Flows observed in June 2019 were equally split between seasonal migration (35%), short-term lo-cal movements (34%) and long-term economic migration (30%). After drop-ping significantly in May (decreasing by 15% from April figures), the share of Burkinabè migrants increased sharply in June, reaching 56 per cent of travellers. The share of Nigerien travellers, for its part, witnessed a drop of 8 per cent (from 43% to 35%), following the 16 per cent in-crease observed in May. Six per cent of individuals were children under five, 5 per cent were pregnant women and 1 per cent were elderly.
In Chad, no data was collected at the Zouarke FMP, which remains shut be-cause of insecurity. Data was collected at the Faya, Kalait, Rig-Rig (located close to the Niger border) and Sarh (situated in southern Chad) FMPs.
Over the reporting period, an average of 518 individuals per day were recorded at the four FMPs, an increase of 43 per cent when compared to May 2019 (375). This substantial rise in the number of travellers may be explained by the resumption of regular travel following the month of Ramadan, during which period individuals tend to avoid travelling.
The primary reasons for travel were short-term economic movements (representing 49% of flows, a 3% decrease from May) and long-term economic migration (32%, an 8% decrease from the previous month). The share of seasonal migrants observed amongst travellers grew from 1 per cent to 15 per cent of flows, a reflection of the start of the rainy season during which time crops are harvested, attracting seasonal workers to the south of the country. Conflict-induced factors continued to decline as a motive for travel, with only very few travellers (1%) stating they were displaced by conflict.
The majority of travellers (66%, 3% less than in May) were adult men, while the share of women was 21 per cent (1% more). Children represented 13 per cent of travellers observed, this was 2 per cent more than during the previous reporting period. Six per cent of travellers were children under five years old, while 4 per cent were pregnant women and 3 per cent were elderly.
The vast majority of identified individuals (96%) were Chadian nationals, while an incidental share of travellers were CAR (2%) or Niger (1%) nationals.
In Guinea, data is collected at three FMPs located in Boundoufourdou (along the border with Senegal), Kouremale and Nafadji (both along the border with Mali), which observe flows to and from Mali and Senegal.
In June 2019, a daily average of 1,084 individuals was observed at the FMPs. This represents an increase when compared to May 2019 (877). The largest share of migrants observed (73%l) were Guinean nationals, while the rest originated from a variety of countries in the West and Central Africa region (including 6% from Mali, 4% from Sierra Leone and 3% from Senegal). When compared to other countries in the region, larger shares of the observed migrants were adult women (31%) and children (24%, a 1% in-crease since May), including 8 per cent of children under five years of. In contrast, a much smaller number (45%) of travellers identified in Guinea than in other countries were adult men. Four per cent of travellers were pregnant women, and 2 per cent were elderly.
The primary reasons for travel were long-term economic migration (45%, 1% less than in May), short-term movements (42%) and seasonal migration (8%). The majority of individuals observed (54%, a 1% decrease since the previous month) were leaving the country. In line with what was observed since the start of the year, most outgoing travellers (primarily observed in Kouremale and Nafadji) were headed to Mali (29%, a 2% decrease from the previous month), while Senegal was the second-most indicated destination (21%, a 2% increase), mainly by travellers in Boundoufourdou).
In Mali, the Gogui FMP, located on the border between Mali and Mauritania, ob-serves mobility flows between the two countries, while the Wabaria (in the city of Gao), Timbuktu, Inhalid (in Kidal region), Place Kidal and Menaka FMPs mainly capture travellers heading to-wards Algeria or traveling within Mali. The other FMPs (Bamako, Sevare, Here-makono, Benena) are major transit stations dispatched throughout the country.
Average daily flows observed in June 2019 witnessed a slight decrease of 3 per cent since May 2019, going from 238 to 232 individuals observed on average each day. Eighty-four per cent of ob-served individuals were adult men, while 12 per cent were women and 4 per cent were children.
While the travelers’ primary countries of origin were similar to the previous month, the proportion of Malian travellers has been dropping for the past four months and decreased by another 4 per cent be-tween May (41%) and June (36%). In contrast, the share of Guinean nationals in-creased by 5 per cent, from 17 per cent to 22 per cent of travellers. Similarly, in contrast to what had been observed since March 2019, Algeria was only the third-most important destination, with the vast majority of travellers intending to head to Mali (65% of travellers, or 5% more than in the previous month) and Mauritania (13% of travellers, a 3% decrease). Only 10 per cent of travellers were going to Algeria, representing a 16 per cent drop from the previous month.
A large majority of migrants (93%) were undertaking long-term economic migration. The share of seasonal migrants was 6 per cent, and the number of individuals performing short-term movements remained stable (1%).
In Mauritania, a Migrants Presence exercise conducted in November 2018 in Nouadhibou to assess the number of Sub-Saharan African migrants present in the city found that 32,384 migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa lived in Nouadhibou. Fifty-five percent were adult men, while 22 per cent were adult women and 23 per cent were children. The majority of migrants identified (61%) were Senegalese nationals, followed by Malian (14%) and Guinean (13%) nationals.
In Nigeria, the Sokoto FMP captures flows between Nigeria and the Niger (mainly to Maradi, Tahoua and Agadez) with ob-served travellers split between those de-parting Nigeria for the Niger and those arriving to Nigeria from the Niger. The Kano FMP captures flows between Nigeria and the Niger, Chad, and in smaller numbers, Cameroon. Observed flows are mainly composed of outflows from Nigeria to the Niger, or internal travel within Nigeria.
The number of individuals observed at the Kano and Sokoto FMPs (1,419) witnessed a decrease of 3 per cent in comparison to April 2019 (1,466). The majority of observed individuals (65%) were adult men, while 19 per cent were adult women and 16 per cent were children, including 5 per cent under five. Notably, 12 per cent of travellers were elderly (aged 60 or older). Travellers were primarily carrying out either short-term movements (46%), long-term economic migration (36%) or seasonal migration (12%). These figures are all similar to those observed in May 2019.
The main nationalities observed were Nigerian (50%), Nigerien (39%) and Chadian (3%) nationals. The majority of observed individuals were travelling to Niger (62%), while 36 per cent were travelling to Nigeria and 1 per cent to Chad. Simiarly, the vast majority of travellers (64%) were coming from Nigeria, while 36 per cent were travelling from Niger.
In the Niger, the Arlit and Séguédine FMPs primarily observe movements to and from Algeria and Libya, respectively. Three of the FMPs (Dan Issa, Dan Barto and Magaria) are located along the border between the Niger and Nigeria.The FMP at Tahoua, situated in central Niger, between the Tillabery region in the east, Nigeria in the south and the Agadez region in the north, were established to help understand internal movement flows. Finally, the Madama FMP, located on the Libyna border, was set up to capture flows that were not caught by the Seguedine FMP because of the proliferation of bypass routes.
An average of 1,740 individuals were ob-served daily at the seven FMPs in June 2019, representing a decrease of 21 per cent as compared to May 2019 (2,209). The majority (73%) were adult men, while 18 per cent were adult women and 9 per cent were children (including 3% under five years old).
The majority of flows observed were internal movements (40%, an increase of 4% since May), followed by evenly split incoming and outgoing flows (both 30% of flows). The primary reasons for migration were equally shared between long-term economic migration (36%), short-term local movements (34%) and seasonal migration (28%).
The Niger and Nigeria were the main countries of both provenance (77% and 19%, respectively) and intended destination (80% and 14%, respectively) of travellers. In line with results found since early 2018, no traveller reported having travelled from Algeria to Niger.
The majority of individuals observed at the seven FMPs were Nigerien nationals (85%, a 5% increase from the May figures), with the next most-represented nationalities being Nigerians (8%, a 5% decrease).
In Senegal, data is collected at Flow Monitoring Points in Kidira (situated on along the border with Mali) and Moussala (located close to the Guinea border).
On average, 246 individuals were ob-served each day at the three FMPs in April 2019. Of this, 58 per cent of travellers were adult men. Comparatively to other countries in the region, a large share (37%) were adult women. Five per cent were children. Eight per cent of individuals observed were elderly.
The largest proportion of travellers indicated conducting short-term local migration (49%, a 2% decrease since February 2019), while the next largest group re-ported performing economic migration (29%, 3% less than in the previous month).
The majority of observed travellers (56%) had left Mali, while 43 per cent started their travel in Senegal. Likewise, while the vast majority of migrants (85%) were headed to Senegal, primarily to towns bordering neighbouring countries, such as Mali, Mauritania, Guinea or The Gambia, a growing share indicated travelling to Mali (11%) and Gambia (4%). Most of the observed individuals (53%, 23% less than in March) were Senegalese nationals, while 34 per cent (18% more) were from Mali and the rest from a variety of West African countries, including Côte d’Ivoire (3%), Gambia (2%) and Guinea (2%).