INTRODUCTION: IOM works with national and regional authorities, as well as local partners to better understand migration movements across West and Central Africa. This report presents data collected in June 2019 at key transit points in Faya, Kalait, Rig-Rig and Sarh in Northern, Western and Southern Chad. These Flow Monitoring Points (FMPs) were set up to monitor the movements of travellers in transit through the country. The Zouarké FMP has been inactive since October 2018 for security reasons.
In June 2019, 518 individuals were, on average, observed at Chad FMPs every day. This represents a significant increase of 43 per cent from May 2019, when on average 363 people were observed each day. This increase may be explained by the normal resumption of movements following the month of May when movements were limited due to Ramadan. The main types of movement of travellers observed at FMPs were short-term local movements, accounting for 49 percent of flows, while seasonal migration accounted for 15 percent of flows. This is due to the beginning of the rainy season in the south of the country where people are moving more and more to plough their fields. As of June 2019, 87 per cent of travellers were adults (66 per cent were men and 21 per cent were women), while 13 per cent were children (7% of boys and 6% of girls). Chadian nationals made up the majority of travellers (96.1%). It should be noted that 2 per cent and 1 per cent of the travellers observed were respectively Central Africans and Nigeriens. Sarh, Sido, Faya and Abéché were the primary locations of origin of travellers with respectively 28, 16, 15 and 13 per cent of travellers. Sido, Sarh and Faya were the main destinations of travellers: respectively 23, 20 and 17 per cent of travellers were heading to these cities.
METHODOLOGY : Flow Monitoring (FM) is a data collection exercise which aims to identify areas with high internal, cross-border and regional mobility. These areas are first identified at the national level, in collaboration with national authorities. DTM teams then highlight, in coordination with local partners, key transit points (Flow Monitoring Points, FMPs). Enumerators collect data at FMPs through a combination of direct observation and interviews with Key Informants (KI), may it be bus station staff, police or customs officials, bus drivers, or the migrants themselves. Data is collected on the profiles and migration experiences of migrants, disaggregated by sex and nationality. FMPs are selected following consultations with key national and local stakeholders involved in migration management and are based on the location and distinctive characteristics of flows in each area. Data is collected on a daily basis, at peak hours.
LIMITATIONS : Data collected during Flow Monitoring exercises should be understood as estimates only. Because of their restricted geographical (key transit points) and temporal (daily, during a specific time window) coverage, they reflect only part of the flows transiting through areas of high mobility. In Chad, FMPs collect data on flows leaving and reaching the towns in which they are installed, and do not offer a complete picture of mobility flows in the country. Finally, information on vulnerabilities is gathered by enumerators through direct observation and should be understood as purely indicative.