In 2018, Haiti suffered a period of severe drought, floods and an earthquake, at a time the country is still facing epidemics of cholera, diphtheria and malaria, a migration crisis with the voluntary or forced displacement of Haitian populations from the Dominican Republic or other countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region, and recurrent protection problems.
These factors, combined with chronic poverty, the economic and social crisis, and structural deficiencies, have contributed to perpetuating a humanitarian crisis situation. Humanitarian needs assistance in 2019 concern 2.6 million people, including 1,330,000 women, 1,306,000 men, 1,227,000 children, 1,248,000 adults and 161,000 elderly people who are mainly affected by acute food insecurity. Almost half of those affected are children.
Throughout Haiti, 39 municipalities in 8 departments and the border area with the Dominican Republic have been defined as priority intervention areas, in addition to the Grand Nord recently affected by an earthquake. Artibonite, Centre and Ouest regions are particularly affected by cholera and diphtheria epidemics. The HNO analysis conducted by the sectors considered the approach to the humanitarian needs of the Haitian population around the 4 major humanitarian issues provided below.
1. VITAL NEEDS ARISING FROM A HUMANITARIAN CRISIS RESULTING IN LOSS OF ACCESS TO BASIC SERVICES
About 2.6 million people are at risk of acute food insecurity in 2019, including 571,000 people in emergency (IPC 4) and 2 million in crisis (IPC 3). 532,000 people need access to health services. Nearly 912,000 people are still in need of assistance with shelter and non-food items.
Nearly 180,000 children are out of school. 13,000 children (under five years of age) suffer from severe acute malnutrition.
Households affected by global acute malnutrition need access to safe drinking water. People of Haitian origin returned from the Dominican Republic need safe water, hygiene and sanitation in hosting centres at the border.
2. NEEDS TO STRENGTHEN PREPAREDNESS FOR NATURAL DISASTERS
Nearly 568,000 people live in areas at high risk of being affected by natural disasters of seismic or hydro-meteorological origin. The capacities of the most vulnerable communities to cope with natural disasters in the most at-risk areas need to be strengthened. State institutions, community and civil society organizations involved in risk and disaster prevention and management need support to prepare for and better anticipate or respond to shocks.
3. HEALTH NEEDS CAUSED BY EPIDEMICS
More than 333,000 people will be affected by the cholera epidemic and about 31,000 by diphtheria and malaria epidemics. The need for detection, confirmation and investigation, and for appropriate and community-based medical care for cholera, diphtheria and malaria cases persists.
4. PROTECTION NEEDS RELATED TO THE VIOLATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE MOST VULNERABLE
Approximately 465,000 people in the most affected communities are at risk of abuse, physical and sexual violence, exploitation and exclusion. The protection of the fundamental human rights of the most vulnerable persons needs to be promoted and strengthened, in particular through access, with minimum standards of care, to psychosocial, legal, medical, security and reintegration services for victims and survivors, and support to public institutions, community and civil society organizations with a protection mandate, in the implementation of measures to strengthen protection.