Aller au contenu principal

Afghanistan: Measles Outbreak - Dec 2021

Types de catastrophes

According to WHO, four suspected measles outbreaks were reported between 21-27 December 2021 in Chinartu, Chora District in Uruzgan, in Suri District in Zabul and in Arghistan District in Kandahar. Reportedly 35 patients suspected with measles symptoms are undergoing medical tests to confirm measles. (OCHA, 9 Jan 2022)

During epidemiological week 4 of 2022 a total of 1,465 new cases (5.5% increase from previous week) and 24 new deaths (100% increase from previous week) were reported. Since epidemiological week 1 of 2022, the trends of new measles cases reported in all provinces has continued to increase sharply. The most affected provinces include Helmand (20.9%), Kandahar (6.9%), Balkh (5.1%), Paktika provinces (4.4%), Ghor (4.3%) and Ghazni (3.9%). A total of 35,609 clinical cases of measles and 3,211 lab confirmed cases are reported between January 2021 to January 2022. A total of 156 confirmed deaths due to measles are recorded during the same period. (WHO, 29 Jan 2022)

From 1 January 2021 to 29 January 2022, 35 319 suspected measles cases were reported in Afghanistan, of which 3221 (9%) were laboratory-confirmed by IgM-ELISA in the seven reference laboratories (one national and six regional). Most of the suspected measles cases (91%) occurred among children less than 5 years of age. During the same period, 156 measles deaths were reported among the confirmed cases (CFR=4.8%), with more than 97% of the fatalities registered among children less than 5 years of age. Although the number of deaths is relatively low, the rapid rise in cases suggests that the trend of reported deaths will continue to increase sharply in the coming weeks. The most affected provinces, with the highest number of reported cases (confirmed and suspected) are Balkh, Ghazni, Helmand, Kandahar, Kabul, Paktika, and Paktya. (WHO, 10 Feb 2022)

From January 2021 to 13 March 2022, there have been 48 366 cases and 250 deaths. In 2022 alone, there have been over 18 000 cases and 142 children have died of measles in the country. More than 1.2 million children aged 6–59 months are planned to be vaccinated during the ongoing measles vaccination campaign in Afghanistan. Around 9200 health workers, volunteers, supervisors, and monitors are mobilized to cover 49 districts in 24 provinces in a week-long campaign scheduled 12–17 March 2022. (WHO, 14 Mar 2022)

During the last two weeks, the measles outbreaks cases showed slight reduction when compared to the preceding two weeks, even though new cases are reported every day. WHO maintains 111 rapid response teams (RRT) on-the-ground to support surveillance and response. Emergency reproductive, maternal and child health services are not readily accessible to a significant part of the vulnerable population due to limited provider capacity, including a weak referral system, an unprecedented level of malnutrition that is making people more vulnerable to illness and diseases like measles. (WHO, 15 Mar 2022)

During the epidemiological weeks 11 and 12, there have been 6,529 cases of measles reported from the sentinel sites of WHO. Most of the cases (80%) were under five years of age and most of them were reported from Helmand, Kabul, Kunduz, Kandahar and Nangarhar provinces. From 12-18 March 2022, the first phase of measles vaccine campaign was conducted in 48 high-risk districts in 24 provinces of Afghanistan. During this campaign, more than 1.2 million children aged 6-59 (50.2% girls) were vaccinated in the targeted districts. The second phase of measles vaccination campaign will be conducted in 111 high-risk districts in 27 provinces. Around 3.5 million children will be targeted in this campaign on the same age group. (WHO, 31 Mar 2022)

The measles outbreak remains a significant concern with 62,185 cases of measles and 330 deaths reported across the country since January 2021. Of the reported cases, around 80 per cent were among children under five. In addition to the measles vaccination campaign, an additional 72,005 children were vaccinated against measles in March under the routine immunization programme, resulting in a total of 157,349 children vaccinated with measles vaccine under the routine programme during the first quarter of 2022. (UNICEF, 31 Mar 2022)

In April 2022, there have been 13,844 new suspected measles cases reported from all over the country. Since the first week of 2022, the trend of suspected measles cases reported in most of the provinces has continued to increase sharply except for week 16 which showed an 11% decline. The most affected provinces by this outbreak are Kunduz (13.4%), Badakhshan (11.6%), Kabul (9.2%), Nangarhar (8.4%), and Helmand (8.4%) and Takhar (7.4%). A total of 4,457 samples have been tested out of which 1,605 were lab-confirmed along with 270 measles-associated deaths in 2022. (WHO, 30 Apr 2022)

As of 14 May, the cumulative number of measles cases is 46,632. The number of deaths is 296. The trend was increasing until week 15 of 2022, however, it is decreasing for the last four weeks. The number of suspected measles cases have decreased in three out of eight affected regions during the last two weeks while the other five regions show increasing trend. The measles outbreak affects the entire country, however, the most affected provinces are Badakhshan (11.5%); Kunduz (11.2%); Nangarhar (8.4%); Kabul (8.0%); Helmand (6.8%); and Takhar (6.7%). Out of the total 5,153 samples tested for measles, 2,051 were laboratory confirmed from Jan-May 2022. The second shipment of measles modules (1,050) arrived in the country and will be distributed according to the predesigned distribution plan. The nationwide measles vaccine campaign is planned in July - August 2022. (WHO, 14 May 2022)

Measles cases continue to rise with 41,085 cases of measles and 270 deaths recorded since the start of 2022. The most affected provinces are Kunduz (12.0%), Badakhshan (10.4%), Kabul (8.3%), Nangarhar (8.0%), Helmand (6.9%) and Herat (5.2%). The number of suspected measles cases in the 49 districts where the measles outbreak campaign was conducted in March shows a decline over a four-week period. Under this intervention, 1.28 million children aged 6-59 months were vaccinated against measles. (UNICEF, 26 May 2022)

As of 8 October, the cumulative number of measles cases is 70,071. The number of deaths is 378. During epidemiological week 40-2022, a total of 537 new cases and 2 new deaths were reported (7.1% decrease in the number of suspected measles cases and 100.0% increase in the number of deaths compared to previous week). The average number of weekly suspected measles cases was around 570 during the last 8 weeks (Figure 15). During the last week, the number of suspected measles cases have increased by 46.2% and 22.5% in West and South regions, respectively, as compared to the previous week. The measles outbreak affected the entire country; however, the most affected provinces are Badakhshan (12.4%), Kabul (10.2%), Nangarhar (10.2%), Kunduz (8.2%), Helmand (7.3%), Takhar (5.6%) and Hirat (5.3%) (Figure 14). Out of the total 7,534 samples tested for measles, 3,539 were laboratory confirmed from Jan-Oct 2022. During the last week, 2 new districts were reported suspected measles cases (Figure 13). (WHO, 11 Oct 2022)