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Bangladesh: Floods and Landslides - Apr 2018

Tipos de desastres
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Pre-monsoon rains started on 18 April 2018 near Cox’s Bazar on Bangladesh’s southern coast. A risk analysis released in the beginning of this year estimated that at least 86,000 people were living in areas at particularly high risk of floods while more than 23,000 were on steep, unstable hillsides that could crumble with continuous heavy rainfall. The camp population has risen by some 200,000 people since. (Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre, 22 Apr 2018)

Over 40,000 Rohingya families in Bangladesh’s Cox’s Bazar refugee camps have now been trained in shelter upgrade techniques ahead of the fast approaching monsoon and cyclone season...In total 100,000 families will be reached through the trainings, while IOM is overseeing the roll out of a similar number of upgrade kits containing ropes, bamboo, tarpaulin and tools. (IOM, 24 Apr 2018)

In case of flooding, the number of people suffering acute watery diarrhea is likely to increase. UNICEF and partners are readying to support an estimated 10,000 people, more than half of which (55 per cent) are children, with treatment for Acute Watery Diarrhea over the next three months. UNICEF is constructing 5 additional Diarrhea treatment centers. One has already opened, two other will open later this week and the two last ones end of May...At least 3 out of 24 health facilities supported by UNICEF in the camps and makeshift settlements are at risk of flooding. This could affect between 25,000 and 30,000 people, more than half of which are children. (UNICEF, 1 May 2018)) rushing additional aid to Bangladesh where the first monsoon rains have been affecting Cox’s Bazar district and the hundreds of thousands of Rohingya refugees there. The first of three scheduled humanitarian airlifts carrying additional shelter materials arrived in Bangladesh on Tuesday (1 May). Its load, 1,400 tents, is the first batch of 10,000 tents that UNHCR will airlift by the end of May. The aim is for the tents to provide emergency shelter for an estimated 60,000 refugees currently residing in areas at high risk of landslides and flooding. Aid is also being moved by sea; this includes additional tents, 170,000 tarpaulins sheets, and other basic items. Humanitarian partners estimate that between 150,000 and 200,000 Rohingya refugees will be at risk this monsoon season...Of this number, 24,000 people are at critical risk due to severe instability of the land on which their shelters have been constructed. (UNHCR, 4 May 2018)

The newly prepared 12-acre plot is now ready to receive shelters and other key services. It will provide new homes for nearly 500 families currently living in some of the most high-risk parts of the refugee site. (IOM, UNHCR and WFP, 8 May 2018)

In the Rohingya refugee camps, during the period of 14-21 May, over 50 households and more than 150 individuals were affected by landslides and windstorms. To date, more than 21,300 refugees have been relocated from high risk locations with an additional 8,400 planned...Of the 24,000 latrines to be de-sludged, over 17,500 are completed. There is still a need for new de-sludging and solid waste management sites, and there remains a high risk of disease outbreaks including water borne diseases (Acute Watery Diarrhoea, Hep A, Hep E) and vector borne diseases (Dengue, Malaria), due to the poor sanitary conditions in the camps. (OCHA, 21 May 2018)

Between 22-30 May 2018, 503 refugees living in camps in Cox’s Bazar and at risk of landslides or floods, were relocated to safer areas. More than 660 people were affected by weather-related incidents including landslides during the same period. To date, over 25,000 people have been relocated within the camps either to safer areas, or to facilitate construction and improvement works. (OCHA, 4 Jun 2018)

The first heavy rains of the year swept through Rohingya refugee settlements in Cox’s Bazar district this weekend, marking the start of the monsoon season...Torrential rains and winds up to 70 kilometres per hour caused at least 89 reported incidents, including 37 landslide incidents, causing several injuries and one confirmed fatality – a child. Nearly 2,500 refugee families, some 11,000 people in all, are affected. As of 10 June the rain has become nearly continuous. According to the Bangladesh Meteorological Department nearly 400 millimetres of rain have fallen in Cox’s Bazar area since Sunday. This is equivalent to two thirds of the average June rainfall for this part of the country. (UNHCR, 12 Jun 2018).

From 11 to 18 June, heavy monsoon rains in Cox’s Bazar again triggered flooding and landslides in the Rohingya refugee camps, affecting 9,000 individuals and displacing more than 2,000 people. Small-scale landslides, floods and high winds damaged structures, bridges, culverts, drainage channels and access roads as well as water points, latrines and other facilities in Ukhia and Teknaf. Weather conditions continue to pose serious protection, health and other risks to refugees, especially to women and children who represent over 80 per cent of the Rohingya refugee population. (OCHA, 18 Jun 2018)

Between June 14 - 21, the monsoon rains brought 95mm of rainfall compared to 537mm during the previous week. The weather was marked by a four-day lull in the rains providing humanitarian workers an opportunity to repair damages from recent landslides, floods and gusts of wind. Repairs focused on bridges, culverts and access roads to ensure reestablishment of any services disrupted. Emergency life-saving response remains an urgent priority. (ISCG, 21 Jun 2018)

Between 25 June and 1 July, more than 900 people living in refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar were affected by heavy rain, landslides and strong winds, with 26 households displaced. More than 90 educational facilities were damaged, and 35 have been decommissioned, affecting almost 10,000 children. Repair of access roads, culverts, bridges and infrastructure is ongoing to mitigate against the impacts of further heavy rain. (OCHA, 2 July 2018)

Between 2 and 7 July, monsoon rains continued to affect the Rohingya refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar. 4,830 people were affected by landslides, flooding and wind damage with 1,370 people displaced. Among other impacts, the heavy monsoon rains since 28 June have severely damaged child protection facilities. 28 were affected and recommended for closure, 5 were decommissioned, and 9 provide temporary shelter to newly affected families pending relocation to safer sites. As of 4 July, 16 of the affected facilities remain closed, while services are provided from other facilities. (OCHA, 9 Jul 2018)

Between 11 and 17 July, Cox’s Bazar recorded 115 mm of rain compared to the 140 mm received in the previous week. Respite from heavy rains provided an opportunity for further progress on monsoon mitigation measures, construction and repair of infrastructure, including access roads in the camps. Heavy rains are anticipated from 21 to 23 July specifically with over 70 mm on 22 July alone. High winds, including gusts of up to 90 km/h are also expected. ISCG has issued an alert to all sectors, Agencies, NGOs and competent Authorities to ensure adequate response mechanisms at the field level. (ISCG, 17 Jul 2018)

On 24 July, shelter teams from IOM, working with over 19,000 Rohingya refugee and local labourers reported to have completed the construction of over 1,000 new shelters as part of a rapid response project to help move refugee families most at risk from landslides during the monsoon. In just over a month, 1,150 of the “Robust Emergency Shelters” have been built with the support of refugee and host communities, who have helped with the construction and transported materials to the new site known as Camp 20 Extension. (IOM, 24 Jul 2018)

Heavy rains from 23-25 July 2018 triggered landslides and flooding throughout Cox’s Bazar district. The Bangladesh Meteorological Department recorded 463mm of rainfall in under 24 hours on 25 July—the second highest recorded rainfall in one day for the district. Nearly 60 incidents of landslides, winds, floods, and waterlogging reported in all settlements by the InterSector Coordination Group (ISCG) 2 on 25-26 July 2018, with 445 shelters damaged. No reported settlements fatalities thus far. However, landslides in the morning of 25 July killed five local children, according to Cox’s Bazar police. (UNHCR, 27 Jul 2018)

Between 27 July and 2 August, monsoon rains continued in Cox’s Bazar causing 44 incidents including landslides, winds, floods, and waterlogging, leading to the damage of 61 shelters. During the same period, a total of 142 Rohingya families (596 individuals) from high-risk landslide areas in seven areas were relocated to Camp 4 Extension. This permanent relocation is part of the expedited risk mitigation measures being done due to heavy rains in the past weeks. UNHCR deployed a Multi-Functional Team (MFT) comprising 16 staff members to affected areas since 25 July. (UNHCR, 4 Aug 2018))

There was minimal rain in Cox’s Bazar between 3 and 9 August 2018, during which three incidents, including a landslide, flood, and a fire, were reported by the Inter Sector Coordination Group across all the refugee settlements, affecting 24 households. Around 106 Rohingya families (436 individuals) from high risk landslide areas were relocated to Camp 4 Extension during the same week. A total of 2,676 individuals from at-risk areas have been relocated to this site by UNHCR as of 8 August. (UNHCR, 9 Aug 2018))

No significant rain occurred during the period of 10-16 August. Two incidents of landslide/soil erosion were reported by ISCG across all refugee settlements affecting 16 households. A total of 14 shelters were damaged. As of 16 August, a total of 24,709 individuals from at-risk landslide areas in all settlements were relocated to various new sites. (UNHCR, 16 Aug 2018))

Despite decrease in rainfall during the period of 17 - 23 August, four incidents of landslide/soil erosion were reported by the Inter-Sector Coordination Group across all refugee settlements resulting in damage to four shelters and affecting seven households 41 individuals. During the same period, around 19 refugee families (77 individuals) from high-risk landslide areas in two refugee sites were relocated to safer grounds between. As of 20 August, UNHCR, IOM and partners have relocated a total of 24,786 individuals from at-risk landslide areas in all settlements to various new. (UNHCR, 23 Aug 2018))

As of today, 67 families have been moved into shelters from landslide high risk locations... Since the beginning of the monsoon season, 2,183 households have had their shelters affected by the monsoon rains and received emergency shelter items. (IOM 13 Sep 2018)

Disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities such as slope stabilisation, reinforcing WFP assistance sites and strengthening shelters for cyclone preparedness are ongoing. WFP with IOM and other partners are also constructing bamboo bridges to improve access in the camps. A joint assessment has been conducted with FAO for a reforestation project in the camps. During August, 4,000 refugees were engaged in DRR activities for a daily cash remuneration. (WFP, 10 Sep 2018)

During 1 - 15 September, UNHCR and partners relocated 33 refugee households/144 individuals at high risk of landslides, as well as new arrivals, and families affected by ongoing construction within the settlements, to safer areas during the reporting period. Thirty incidents, including 18 landslides, were recorded from 1-13 September, affecting 154 refugee families in all settlements. Over half of the families in need of safe relocation have been assisted so far. UNHCR, with support from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and BRAC, planted 5,447 seedlings of five plant species, covering over 2 hectares of land in six locations in Kutupalong settlement. The project is an effort to address environmental damage from deforestation. (UNHCR, 15 Sep 2018)

Shariatpur district which is situated along the Padma River has been severely affected by riverbank erosion caused by heavy rain and floods in some parts of India. Four unions and one municipality of Naria Upazila and Zajira Upazila have been affected. An estimated 8,710 families or approximately 43,550 people have been displaced. A rapid evacuation took place, but unfortunately some people did not manage to leave on time, resulting in a number of casualties as a result. (IFRC, 25 Sep 2018)

Cyclone preparedness is the top priority. Response planning and risk mitigation efforts continue, in coordination with Government partners. Shelter upgrades continue, with 169,866 households supported with tie-down kits that allow shelters to resist winds up to 40 km/hr. 3,400 households have received mid-term and transitional shelters which can resist wind speeds of 50 and 80+ km/hr, respectively. As of 23 September 2018, 43,640 refugees have been relocated into newly developed sites or within their camps, including for landslide and flood risk mitigation, infrastructure development as well as new arrivals; 26,177 of these were due to heightened landslide risks. Safe space for emergency evacuations is urgently needed. (ISCG, 27 Sep 2018)

Heavy rain and thunderstorms caused flooding, wind damage and landslides in the Rohingya refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar affecting at least 692 households and damaging over 234 shelters. Cumulatively since May 2018, the monsoon rains have affected at least 12,000 households and displaced over 6,000 people within the camps. (OCHA, 15 Oct 2018)