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Nigeria: Lassa Fever Outbreak - Dec 2016

Types de catastrophes

Five countries (Nigeria, Togo, Benin, Burkina Faso, and Sierra Leone) in West Africa are experiencing Lassa fever outbreaks. The current outbreak started on 16 December 2016 in Ogun State, Nigeria...The disease eventually increased in number and spread to 14 other states in Nigeria, and to three neighbouring countries of Benin, Togo and Burkina Faso. (WHO, 14 Apr 2017)

Following the increasing number of Lassa fever cases reported from several States across the country, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control has activated its Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) to coordinate the response to the outbreak on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The EOC has deployed Rapid Response Teams to the most affected States- Ebonyi, Ondo and Edo States. The RRTs are supporting the States in response coordination, contact tracing, case management, risk communication and strengthening infection prevention and control practices. Emergency supplies have also been sent to treatment centres in all affected States. (Gov't of Nigeria, 24 Jan 2018)

The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has intensified its response to the Lassa Fever outbreak as the number of confirmed Lassa Fever cases from January 1 this year rose to 317 as at the 25th of February 2018, crossing the total number of confirmed cases recorded in 2017. Three states in Nigeria; Edo, Ondo and Ebonyi State carry 85% of the burden of Lassa fever cases currently (Gov't Nigeria, 28 Feb 2018.)

A total of 1 386 suspected cases and 114 deaths have been reported from 19 active states: Anambra, Bauchi, Benue, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Gombe, Imo, Kaduna, Kogi, Lagos, Nasarawa, Ondo, Osun, Plateau, Rivers, Taraba, and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). Sixteen healthcare workers have been affected in six states: Ebonyi (9), Edo (3), Benue (1), Kogi (1), Nasarawa (1), and Ondo (1). A total of 1 022 cases including 127 deaths were reported from week 49 of 2016 to week 51 of 2017. From 1 January to 25 March 2018, 19 states have recorded at least one confirmed case across 56 LGAs (Edo, Ondo, Bauchi, Nasarawa, Ebonyi, Anambra, Benue, Kogi, Imo, Plateau, Lagos, Taraba, Delta, Osun, Rivers, FCT, Gombe, Ekiti and Kaduna) (WHO, 30 Mar 2018.)

As of 15 April, 27 health care workers in seven states (Abia, Benue, Ebonyi, Edo, Kogi, Nasarawa, and Ondo), have been infected since 1 January 2018, eight of whom have died. From the beginning of the outbreak in January 2018 to the week ending 18 February the number of weekly reported Lassa fever cases, increased from 10 to 70 cases. From late-February to early March, there has been a downward trend in the weekly reported number of Lassa fever cases with less than 20 cases reported each week in March and only five new cases reported in the week ending 15 April 2018 (WHO, 20 Apr 2018.)

In the last reporting week, ending on 6 May 2018, three new confirmed cases of Lassa fever were reported. This year a total of 423 confirmed cases including 106 deaths have been recorded. The national case numbers have consistently declined in the past six weeks, and have dropped below levels considered to be a national emergency when compared with data from previous outbreaks. (WHO, 10 May 2018.)

From 1st January to 13th May 2018, a total of 1914 suspectedi cases have been reported from 21 states. Of these, 428 were confirmed positive, 10 are probable, 1468 negative (not a case) and 8 samples are awaiting laboratory result (pending). Since the onset of the 2018 outbreak, there have been 107 deaths in confirmed cases, 10 in probable cases. Case Fatality Rate in confirmed cases is 25.0%. Emergency phase of national Lassa fever outbreak has been declared over by the Honourable Minster for Health Prof Isaac Adewole during a press briefing on 10th May 2018. National Lassa fever multi-partner, multi-agency Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) reverts to Technical Working Group(TWG) and continues to coordinate the response activities at all levels. (Gov't Nigeria, 13 May 2018)