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Nigeria: Measles Outbreak - Oct 2016

Disaster types

From 4 January to 23 September 2016, a total of 3,905 suspected cases of measles have been reported in four conflict affected states: 846 in Borno, 2,510 in Yobe, 273 in Adamawa and 276 cases in Gombe state. Of these, 129 cases were laboratory confirmed. (Nigeria Health Cluster, 4 Oct 2016)

Following the harmonization of the available data from the Early Warning and Response System (EWARS), IDP camp surveillance data from State Primary Health Care Development Agency (SPHCDA), Health sector partners and Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response (ISDR), it was concluded that there is an ongoing measles outbreak in Borno State afflicting camp and non-camp populations.

The Borno State Ministry of Health (BSMOH) is already conducting a reactive vaccination campaign with the support of partners, targeting 18 IDP camps. So far, 35,742 children have been vaccinated in six camps. This campaign however is inadequate to interrupt the transmission of measles across the state, as it does not involve the host communities nor other settlements and IDP camps where measles cases have also been reported. As the BSMOH is expanding the present campaign to include all accessible estimated 2.3 million children aged six months to 15 years in the state without prejudice to the national measles campaign, a request for support (including vaccines and logistics) have been communicated to the Federal MoH. This expanded campaign was planned to take place from 27–30 November 2016. (Nigeria Health Cluster, 20 Nov 2016)

A mass vaccination campaign to protect more than 4 million children (4 766 214) against a measles outbreak in conflict-affected states in north-eastern Nigeria started on 13 January 2017. The Borno State Ministry of Health, with support from WHO and partners, has already vaccinated more than 83,000 children aged 6 months to 15 years living in camps for IDPs (internally displaced people) where measles cases had been reported. These campaigns have started to show results, with a reduction of measles cases around the camps. (WHO, 12 Jan 2017)

So far, 19,306 suspected Measles cases with 108 laboratory confirmed cases and 109 deaths (CFR, 0. 56%) have been reported in 2017 from 36 States and FCT compared with 23,417 suspected cases and 100 deaths (CFR, 0.43%) from 36 States and FCT during the same period in 2016. (Gov't Nigeria, 3 Nov 2017)

In the reporting week, 331 suspected cases of Measles were reported from 34 States compared with 356 suspected cases with four Laboratory confirmed and one death (CFR, 0.28%) reported from 28 States during the same period in 2017. So far, 691 suspected Measles cases and one death (CFR, 0.14%) were reported from 36 States and FCT compared with 966 suspected cases with six laboratory confirmed and 13 deaths (CFR, 1.35%) during the same period in 2017 (Gov't Nigeria, 2 Feb 2018)

Nigeria has been experiencing an increasing number of measles cases since the beginning of the year. The increase in measles cases across the country intensified in early March 2019, prompting the activation of the national measles Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) to enhance response efforts. In week 15 (week ending 14 April 2019), a total of 1 925 suspected measles cases, with 11 deaths (case fatality ratio 0.6%), were recorded across 31 states. Borno State in northeast Nigeria was the most affected, having reported 958 suspected cases, constituting about 50% of the total cases reported across the country during the week. Since the disease trend peaked in week 12 (week ending 24 March 2019) when 2 567 cases were reported, there has been a slight decline in the weekly number of cases. (WHO, 28 Apr 2019)

WHO, UNICEF, Gavi Alliance and health authorities have vaccinated more than 1.2 million children against measles in the north-eastern Borno state. More than 28,000 suspected cases and 89 deaths have been reported since the start of the year. Borno has been the worst affected with over 15,000, according to WHO. (OCHA, 27 May 2019)

Between epi week 1 and 20 (1 Jan - 19 May 2019), a total of 30 669 suspected cases have been recorded from 695 LGAs in 36 states and FCT with 91 deaths (CFR 0.29%). Of the 6 764 samples tested, 1 476 were IgM positive for measles. (WHO, 28 Jul 2019)