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Nigeria: Polio Outbreak - Aug 2016

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Following the recent detection of wild poliovirus in Nigeria, Ministers of Health from Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger and Nigeria have declared the polio outbreak in Nigeria as a public health emergency for countries of the Lake Chad basin. The declaration, coming out of the 66th session of the WHO Regional Committee for the African Region, demonstrates commitment from governments across the region to bolster momentum in the fight against the virus. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 29 Aug 2016)

Nigeria has mobilized its immunization forces and will look to take heed of four key lessons earned during almost three decades of anti-polio efforts: 1) establishing and sustaining trust is critical to the success of eradication campaigns; 2) frequent, independent monitoring and evaluation are key to tracking the progress of an intervention and making modifications; 3) holding all actors accountable is essential to pushing an intervention forward and; and 4) contextualized health initiatives are key in fighting polio and other diseases. These lessons will reinforce a cohesive, multilateral strategy that builds on past successes to secure a polio-free Nigeria. (Center for Global Development, 16 Nov 2016)

The coverage data of the 5th polio outbreak response from early December reports more than 90 per cent polio vaccination coverage in the 81% of the Local Government Areas (LGAs) surveyed in Borno state. The 6th polio campaign in Borno state (between 16 -19 December) took place in 24 of the 27 LGAs in Borno state (except Marte, Abadam and Mobbar) and in all the 17 LGAs in Yobe State. (UNICEF, 21 Dec 2016)

Nigeria continues to implement emergency response to the detected WPV1 strain and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) strains aecting the country (last detected in 2016). Detection of the polio cases in Nigeria underscores the risk posed by low-level undetected transmission and the urgent need to strengthen subnational surveillance. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 30 Aug 2017)

The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 remains four and no cases have been reported in 2017. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 21 August 2016 in Monguno Local Government Area, Borno. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 4 Oct 2017)

The detection of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) (Borno state, Nigeria in 2016) and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) (Borno and Sokoto states in 2016) continue to pose a risk to the neighbouring countries of the Lake Chad basin. Emergency outbreak response efforts continue across the Lake Chad basin, together with activities to fill subnational surveillance gaps across the region. These activities include efforts to vaccinate children at markets, in internally displaced persons camps, and at international borders. Phase 3 of outbreak response is being launched in January 2018, taking into account the recommendations made during the November Outbreak Response Assessments for the countries and the Technical Advisory Group meeting in December. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 10 Jan 2018)

One new case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been confirmed in Nigeria this week, occurring in Kaugama district, Jigawa state, with onset on 15 April 2018. (WHO, 08 Jun 2018)

One new circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been reported in the past week, from Nganzai Local Government Area, Borno state, with onset of paralysis on 13 July. Two new cVDPV2-positive environmental samples were reported in the past week, one from Yobe state, and one from Sokoto state. The country continues to be affected by two separate cVDPV2 outbreaks, the first centered in Jigawa state, and the second in Sokoto state. In response to cVDPV2 detection, the country continues to conduct acute flaccid paralysis surveillance strengthening activities including enhanced active surveillance visits and community sampling. The programme has also carried out an extensive search for type 2 containing vaccines (tOPV/mOPV2) in the areas surrounding where the virus was detected. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 23 Aug 2018)